Research on Colorblindness and Color-deficient Vision

    It is likely that persons with color deficient vision are at a disadvantage in their roles as consumers.  Their success in the marketplace is often related to their abilities to see, to recognize, and to discriminate among colors. For them, color cues simply may not be processed and interpreted as intended by manufacturers, retailers, advertisers, and web-designers. It is difficult to describe the problems that are unique to persons with color vision deficiencies without actually getting their input and comparing it to the input of persons with normal color vision. It is also possible that women have different experiences than men when interpreting color.

    The link below takes you to an online survey that is designed to gather the responses of both groups of people - persons with color vision deficiencies and persons with normal color vision. It is an easy to complete on-line format that allows you to input your responses directly on the computer. Won't you take a few minutes to participate?  Could you recommend this site to others who may be interested?
Color Blindness Study Description - Data Collection is Completed at this time.

   Thank you for your time!

Publications and Manuscripts In-press

Kaufman-Scarborough, Carol (2003), "Toward the Development of a Measure of Retail Quality of Life for Color-deficient Consumers," in ADVANCES IN QUALITY-OF-LIFE THEORY AND RESEARCH, edited by M. Joseph Sirgy, Don Rahtz, and A.C. Samli, (Dordrecht, The Netherlands, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003).

Carol Kaufman-Scarborough (2003),  “Integrating Consumer Disabilities into Models of Information Processing: Color-vision Deficiencies and Their Effects on Women’s Marketplace Choices”,  forthcoming in Gender and Disability Studies Volume, ed. Bonnie G. Smith and Beth Hutchison, Institute for Research on Women, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Rutgers University Press.

Kaufman-Scarborough, Carol (2001), “Accessible Advertising for Visually-Disabled Persons:  The Case of Color Deficient Consumers,” Journal of Consumer Marketing, Volume 18 (Summer), Number 4, 303-316.

Kaufman-Scarborough, Carol  (2000), “Seeing Through the Eyes of the Color-Deficient Shopper: Consumer Issues for Public Policy,” Journal of Consumer Policy, 23 (4):461-492.


Color Blindness Overview
Color Blindness Survey - Data Collection Completed
Color and Web Design
Products and Books related to Color Blindness