MODERN UNDERSTANDINGS

I. ORIGINS OF RACES
"Black Africans" have adapted over tens of thousands of years, perhaps hundreds of thousands of years, to the harsh sunlight (ultraviolet radiation) of the tropics. Pigment bestows an advantage in the equatorial climate, as a natural form of sun block or sunscreen. Without it, people would be more susceptible to skin cancer. "Kinky" hair also deflects the sunlight.

Light (de-pigmented) skin is an advantage in arctic climates because in that region, where the sun may not get above the horizon for 6 months of the year, people do not get enough vitamin a and d. We need a sufficient amount of sunlight to metabolize vitamins a and d. A dark pigment in the arctic climate would leave one without enough sunlight, and with a vitamin deficiency, and weak bones. Thin noses are probably an adaptation to dry climates that would dry out the mucous membranes or allow too much cold or hot dry air into the lungs. Thins noses protect the body from breathing in too much bitterly cold air down into the lungs.

II. THE AFRICAN DIASPORA IN THE EAST

The indigenous people of India are called Dravidians. They are dark black, but with straight hair.

The indigenous people of Australia are black in color, and are called Aborigines, and have been there for 40,000 years. The Maoris of New Zealand are also black. So are the Aetas of the Philippine Islands, and the Melanesians of the south Pacific.

The dark people of the Pacific migrated from what is now southern China and southeast Asia perhaps 40,000 years ago, out into the Pacific (taking dogs and pigs with them). Genetically, the Aborigines and Melanesians share traits with southeast Asians.

Most likely, more than 80,000 years ago, the ancestors of the Dravidians in India and the "Austronesians" migrated from Africa. If so, it is also likely that at one time "black" people lived in Arabia, Mesopotamia and coastal Iran. In recent millennia, light complected Eurasians (Indo-Europeans) have migrated from central Asia into these regions, resulting in today’s lighter, mixed "race" populations in Arabia and northern India.

III.THERE ARE SEVERAL DIFFERENT TYPES OF AFRICANS.

Africans have been evolving for tens of thousands of years (at least 80,000).

In Europe and America, we usually see only one type of African. this is the west and central African, the so-called "true negro." Most of the enslave captives brought to the New World were from west Africa (closest to America and Europe).

the west/central African is called the broad African type. Supposedly, he is typified by a wide nose, thick lips, prognathous jaw, so-called "kinky" hair, broad shoulders, narrow hips.

But not all Africans look this way. There are other types. but because Europeans and Americans almost always saw only one type, they erroneously thought that all Africans were like this.

Keith Crawford discusses this in the article on pages 55-73 of Egypt, Child of Africa.

The elongated type has a slender body type, narrow head (skull), narrow face, thin lips like a European, and spiralled hair. mild or no prognathicism.

Examples include the Somalis of east Africa, and the Fulani; Tutsi; Masai; and the Galla, Tigreans and Amharas of Ethiopia.

This is very likely an ancient type that probably migrated out of Africa to India.

The thin nose of northeast Africans may be an adaptation to dry heat, over tens of thousands of years.

The Nilotic type lives in the Nile valley, south of Egypt, in southern Sudan. They are exceptionally tall, and consist of the Nuer, Dinka, Shilluk and related tribes or ethnic groups (Manut Bol, formerly of the 76ers, is a Dinka).

European scholars (Smith, Sergi, Coon) thought of them as brown-skinned Caucasians because of the shape of their skulls and noses and thin lips. thus, they were classified as "white" or Caucasoid on the basis of their skulls (crania), nose and lips, not their color. and their hair was sometimes spiralled, not kinky. But they were brown or black in color. Through this kind of "analysis," the Egyptians and Nubians could be classified as "Aryan" and Caucasoid even when they were brown or black in color, hence it was denied that they were "black" like "real negroes."

There are also the Pygmies of Zaire. Small. Vary in color.

There are also the Khoisan of southern Africa. They can be copper in color.

Egypt was invaded by foreigners many times.

Amorites, from the hill country of Palestine, c.1700 BC
Indo-European "Sea peoples, 1200 BC.
Assyrians, 671 BC
Persians, 525 BC
Greeks, 332 BC
Romans, 30 BC
Arabs, 640 AD

Chiekh Anta Diop argues that Egypt has "lightened up" over the past three millennia as light-complected people from the Tigris-Euphrates region, Persian, Europe, and Arabia have come into Egypt.

Analysis of the marrow of the most ancient Egyptian skeletons suggests similarity with the blood of the Haratin, a population in the Algerian desert. (Van Sertima, p. 68). They are called black Berbers, and are descended from an ancient population that lived in the Sahara before it dried out and became a desert. The ancient Egyptians are more closely related to other Africans than to any group outside of Africa. and especially to the people living south of Egypt in the Nile valley and Ethiopia today.