International Marketing 52:630:371 - 3 credits – Spring 2003
Dr. Carol Kaufman-Scarborough
 Tuesdays and Thursdays 4:30 to 5:50 - BSB 106
Office Hours: Tuesday and Thursday 3:00 - 4:30 and by appointment.

 1. My office at school is Business and Science 219.  I am generally in on class days.  Please leave a message or call my home office if you need to reach me in an emergency.  If you need an appointment and cannot make these office hours, please see me to schedule another time.

2. Telephones:
Rutgers Office Phone:  856-225-6592 (ans. Machine)  Rutgers Fax:  856.225?6231
Home Office Phone:     856-429-1045 (ans. machine, fax, late calls ok)

3.   E-MAIL:
E-mail is the best way to reach me. You all have E-mail accounts available to you, and you will need to use your account for this class.  Some library databases will only be accessible via your Rutgers account. Persons with other types of accounts (e.g. AOL) will need to obtain passwords from the library in order to access the databases online. You will be sent class notes, questions, and schedules via E-mail throughout the semester.

4.  Prerequisites:  Principles of Marketing (No Exceptions!)

Course Description/Objectives

Businesspersons have the responsibility to understand the complexities of global markets, but unfortunately many have only a surface appreciation for the subtle complexities which international markets can really present. The aim of this course is to provide a set of tools that are usable and practical in approaching market entry decisions and problems.  You’ll learn to experience an unfamiliar market setting, learn how to use online international databases, and present a group project on a topic of global interest.

Text:    International Marketing, by Philip R. Cateora and John L. Graham, Eleventh Edition, R.D. Irwin/McGraw Hill, New York, 2002.

This text has been chosen for its comprehensive information, presented in a readable, accurate fashion. Many international texts overemphasize summary statistics, cultural bloopers, and stereotypes, without presenting actual thinking and decision-making skills in cross-cultural settings.  This widely-used text, by prominent authors, will outfit you with the ideas and vocabulary to analyze topics in International Marketing without creating an ethnocentric, US-dominant perspective. The text encourages you to think about cross?cultural markets in an informed, educated way.

International Marketing changes on a daily basis!  Countries negotiate new agreements, currencies fail, political events take place, and so forth, which all change the environment of international business.  You will be given handouts throughout the semester that illustrate and document such changes. We will access current information on the Internet in each class.  You should become an expert in current global issues and where to find them. However, since there is so much change, some of the terms and ideas in the text will be dated, with new names and terms already in use. Don’t let this frustrate you.

Our class is composed of students from several backgrounds and majors. Please see me if you are unfamiliar with any specific concepts from Marketing or need extra help.

As business students, you are responsible to keep up to date on business practices around the world. Rutgers has provided many ways for you to have cutting-edge information through various sources at no additional cost to you. You can become an expert on global issues by learning to use them. NOTE: If you are using another Internet Provider, such as AOL or your company, please go to the Library reference desk for assistance.

1. Library:
a. Business and Industry Database on the RU Library Web site – this is one of the best links to trade and global information.  Keywords are accessed through a series of pull-down menus. I strongly recommend this for your Term Project. 

b. Dow Jones Interactive: This is a premier source linking you to the Wall Street Journal (domestic and international editions), the New York Times, the Washington Post, and others. You should use this daily for all your classes.

2. This web site is provided by the Trade Information Center at the U.S. Dept of Commerce. It can be found at:

3. Syllabus on my web site.  The links on the web site have been tested and used. These are reliable sources that contain accurate data:

NOTE:  searching on the Web should be done with care!  There are many web sites that are inaccurate, biased, and worse.  Library Reference Section:  EXPORTERS’ ENCYCLOPEDIA – handout on exporting will be given in class

Grading Policies:  The contribution of each assignment to the final grade is:

Every class! 
 Participation, examples, comments
10 points 
Tuesday, Feb. 11th 
Web Information Assignment 
10 points 
Tuesday, Feb. 25th 
Midterm Examination 
15 points 
Tuesday, March 25
Tuesday, March 27 
 Investigating Products
Sign up for your date! 
15 points
Tuesday April 22, Thursday April 24, & Tuesday April 29  (if needed) Review class – Thursday, May 1
Presentations and Term Project 
 25 points 
Saturday, May 10 – 2-5 pm
                PLAN NOW!
 Final Examination 
25 points 

Assignments: Planned Schedule (dates are approximate and subject to change)

Week 1, Jan 21, 23
Chapters 1, 2
Introduction, What is the Self Reference Criterion? Are you ethnocentric?
Global Business Environment; Protectionism, Trade Barriers, Trade Restrictions, Keiretsu
a. Read current issues from the controversial WTO:
b. The International Trade Commission:
c. The United Nations:
d. The UN’s school site, aimed at grade and high schools, is actually a great resource for us:
e.  Keep up to date on changes in tariffs and nontariff barriers.  Here’s one of the best sites to use from the Trade Information Center at the U.S. Dept of Commerce.  Tariff and Country Information sections are informative:
f.  Understanding the “Made in the USA” issue:
g. More insight:

Form Class Project Groups- hand in any group preferences for working together on class project.  NOTE:  Jan. 28th - Last Day to hand in topics to study and suggested teams

Week 2,  Jan. 28, 30
Chapter  3:   What is the Impact of Geography and History on World Trade?
So Where is Country X and What Should I Know About Its Location??
Country History ? e.g.  Former Soviet Republics, Bosnia, etc.
a. World Factbook online, found at:
b. Current and historical maps provided by University of Texas, found at:
c. Atlapedia presents both maps and statistics:

Chapter 4/  Cultural Dynamics, Norms, Values, Beliefs, Roles,  Customs, Rituals,
Artifacts: Discuss Web Information Assignment  (due Feb. 11th)
a.   Michigan State University site:
b.  Translations can be deceiving:
c.  Business languages can be specific:
d. A country example:  Japan:
e. Are you on p-time or m-time
Begin Going International Films and Negotiations

Week 3,  Feb. 4, 6
Going International Films
Chapters 4, 5 - considering global culture (continued)
Business Customs:  Imperatives, Adiaphora, Exclusives

Chapter 6:   Political Environment, Change, Stability, Redrawing Country Borders,
What is Political Vulnerability? What are Politically Sensitive Products?
Here is an informative place to start. This site will take you to government, laws, and media from the country’s point of view. Found at:
Here is a company that specializes in political risk assessment:  Found at:

Week 4, Feb. 11, 13 - First assignment due - be ready to talk about what you found!

Chapter 7:  Legal Environment, Jurisdiction, Protection
VIDEO:  Doing Business in Russia (original and update)
a. Trade laws by country:
You will be able to access and compare frequently-updated information on trade laws and practices
b.   Laws and trade information for the Newly Independent States, found at:

Chapter 8, Researching Global Markets:
If I have the "Perfect Product,"  How Can I Enter the Market???

Meanings of Secondary Data:  How do data interpretations differ?  What are the limitations?
     World Factbook:  If you were a citizen of Country X, what is your life expectancy?
     UN Infonation:      Go to UN school site, see “Country at a Glance”

Week 5,  Feb. 18, 20
Researching Global Markets, continued
Differences in Primary Research Techniques in Other Cultures
Read for class discussion - Nestle, The Infant Formula Incident, found in your textbook . This case is especially important given the spread of HIV.  Consider the application of principles of ethics.  NOTE:  This case will appear on the midterm exam. Go to the company website at to read updates on the company.

Review  for Midterm

Chapter 9, Emerging Markets, Measures of Economic Development - do they work?
How is economic development assessed for NICs?  For BEMs?
What are reasonable measures for living standards?  Whose living standards?

Week 6
Tuesday, Feb. 25th  - Midterm,  covers chapters 1-8

Thursday, Feb. 27th
Chapter 10, Multinational Markets:  Why do countries work together as a group?
Dissolution of Soviet Union ; What’s common about a common market???  We’ll look at several examples.
The European Union, found at:
NAFTA, the North American Free Trade Area, at:
CEFTA, the Central European Free Trade Area, at:

Week 7, March 4, 6th   - Preference for Investigating Product presentation dates due by email
Chapter 11,  Global Marketing Management , Methods of Market Entry
Strategic Planning for Global Marketing
Are there certain methods of market entry that are required?  Are there market entry methods that create advantages or disadvantages in certain markets?  What are countries telling us about how they want us to enter their countries?  Do they want particular forms of business?  Specific types of clearances?
Use the Trade Information Center site to determine the answers:

Week 8, March 11th, Special Class March 13th

Chapter 12,   Developing Consumer Products: Core Products,
Identifying Unmet Needs in Unfamiliar markets, Characteristics of Successful Innovations
What is "good" consumer behavior in a given country? How are products used?
Relate this discussion to the Nestle Case

Let’s consider a familiar company, Campbell Soup, and learn about its various global products
See the “Campbell Around the World” section found at:

Chapter 13,  Industrial Products and Services
The importance of global sourcing and support are critical. Trade fairs are common points of contact. The importance of servicing products in global markets is nicely illustrated by Caterpillar’s site.

March 13th:  Videos on Coca Cola and Breathe Right product design, adaptations
                     Time to work on Assignment

Week of March 16th – SPRING BREAK – Dr. KS to South Africa

Week 9, March 25 and 27th
Investigating Products in Unfamiliar Markets" Roundtables
This is your 5-minute presentation (plus short write-up) of your product.

Week 10 -  April 1, 3rd
Chapter 14,   International Distribution Systems, selection of middlemen
a. Traditional retail in the bricks and mortar setting:
KFC Film - the adaptation of distribution for the Japanese market – an OLD film that depicts problems that still occur in today’s market entry decisions.
Examine McDonald’s Web site to learn how they have adapted their retail stores.  Sites are listed by country.  Found at:

b. Global E-commerce - What are the developing issues?
Go to shop in your local language section:

Chapter 16, Promotion in the Global Setting (NOT just Advertising!!!!)
How can we communicate with consumers in other countries and be sure that we mean what we say, and say what we mean? What are Media Differences, Perceptual Problems, Personal Selling, ADVERTISING FILM
A good reference is Advertising Age’s Global web site:
London International Advertising Awards:
Professor Louisa Ha, Bowling Green State U:
Kidon Media Link:
Other University Advertising Sites:
Library of Congress link to their Coca Cola section:
Know This Portal Page to numerous free ad links:

Week 11,  April 8, 10th
Chapter 18, Pricing for International Markets
What are Price Escalation and Countertrade?     What does price convey in global markets?
Is there a price/quality linkage??  What is the impact of changing currencies?
Let’s consider the euro, the new currency of the European Union

Week 12, April 15, 17th – Interpersonal Skills - revisited

Chapter 17, Personal Selling, Techniques, Similarities and Differences
Personnel Issues, Training your employees for Global Markets
Sensitivity Exercises to know your market better
Chapter 19, Negotiating with Customers and others

Week 13, April 22 and 24th

Week 14
April 29 – Presentations if needed

May 1st - Chapter 15,  Workshop on Export Trade Mechanics and Logistics
Bureau of Export Administration, found at:
Where to find regulations and technical information:
How complex are export documents?

Review Class

FINAL EXAM PERIOD:  SATURDAY, MAY 10th from 2 to 5 pm

 Teaching Methodology

The class will focus on building strong analytical skills for global market evaluation, and particular attention will be paid to current and reliable international country data sources.  If you work with me, you will finish the class as an expert on a topic in international marketing, with the capability of advising a firm as an international consultant.  You are our future business leaders, and that is the perspective that I will take.   Class participants will be expected to be up-to-date in class readings and make connections between current world events with topics discussed in class.  You are encouraged to bring in examples that you have found, observed, or experienced.

 Classroom Policies/Expectations

Academic Dishonesty Policy:  Cheating in any form will result in a grade of "F" being submitted in this course.  Cheating is just that: it cheats YOU of learning and understanding the material covered in class.

Web sites:  Similarly, there are many web sites that tell you that they are selling you reliable information that they have provided for you to “buy.” While the titles may sound good, can you trust them? Any use of such sites will receive an automatic “F”.

Testing:  You are expected to be in class at the scheduled exam times.  The instructor MUST be notified IN ADVANCE if you are unable to take an exam on time.  Make-up tests are given only in the case of an extreme emergency or serious illness.  Substantiation will be required in all cases.

Incompletes and Problems:  If you find that you are having trouble completing course work or need further explanation of class topics, please schedule an appointment with the instructor.  If you need this class for graduation, you should be sure that your performance is up to standard throughout the course.  It is TOO LATE to wait until the last week of classes to ask for help.  Office hours are held throughout the ENTIRE semester for this purpose. "Incompletes" will only be given through prior consultation with the instructor, under extreme circumstances.

Class attendance is expected; scheduling makeups and/or copying class notes ARE YOUR RESPONSIBILITY. Films and in-class handouts are part of the course material, and are considered eligible for inclusion on class exams.  Class attendance will be taken during the course of the class and is used in the grading process.

 Class Participation

Class participation is encouraged and sought.  This is your class and you should make it as interesting as possible.  In terms of grading, it is assumed that everyone starts out in the middle. Negative participation (disruption, sleeping, reading, etc) detracts from everyone's time; points will be deducted, rather than added for these types of behaviors.  Thus the range of class participation grades is from -10 through +10.  This can substantially affect your grade.

Web Information Assignment  - due  Tuesday,  Feb. 11th  - 10 % of grade

Suppose you are in charge of taking ABC Corporation’s business overseas. You know that there are several important factors to look into for entering any new country. You have learned how to use the Trade Information Center web site to identify tariff and nontariff barriers. You offer to make a comparative chart of Country x vs. Country Y so that the management team can determine which market to choose. Please fill out the chart below with the ten factors that you judge to be critical in making the decision. I have started you out with a few key points.

NOTE 1:  Country X and Country Y will be given in class.

NOTE 2: Enlarge the chart to fit the types of information that you have found. Please discuss in 2-3 pages and make a recommendation of which country you feel is more accessible to a firm like ABC.

NOTE 3:  ABC Corporation is a fictitious company with no type of business specified in order to emphasize general contrasts between Country X and Country Y.  If a specific business were chosen, obvious country advantages would emerge given the specific needs of the population.

Web site address:
Sample Information Country X Country Y
Free Trade zones, areas for assembly    
Markings and labeling    
Free trade agreements    
Prohibited imports    
Business holidays    

Investigating Products in Unfamiliar Markets -  (15% of grade)
Tuesday March 25th and Thursday March 27th
Email me your preferred presentation date by Thursday, March 6th

 This is the assignment that students talk about long after the course is over.  I developed it years ago to try to give you an appreciation for ethnocentricity in product design.  You also will learn what it feels like to be a “foreigner” in an unfamiliar market.

NOTE:  Outstanding examples will be used on the final exam in applications questions.

Relevance and Skill-Building:  A difficult and much-needed skill in International Marketing is the ability to discover and to think about consumers' and organizations' needs in different cultures, to interpret those needs into products, and to market those products in ways which are meaningful to their target markets.  This investigation asks you to put yourself in the place of the foreign consumer, encountering your product for the first time.

Go to a shopping area that specializes in the native tastes of some ethnic group. There are numerous markets in Philadelphia and throughout New Jersey that specialize in the foods and products desired by various ethnic groups. Please see me if you need suggestions and/or directions.

1. Find/buy a product which you cannot identify; write down your first impressions of what you think the product is made of and what it is used for. (Bring it to class for discussion – don’t spend too much!).

2. What cues are there on the product?  If it is packaged, what information can you find?  If it is not packaged, did the store signs give you any information?  What information would you want as a consumer?

3. Describe what section of the store your product is placed in, i.e.: describe what products were near it.  (If you cannot recognize these products, describe what they look like).

4. Attempt to interview store management or one of the retail clerks to find out what the product really is (you may not always be successful in this attempt!) If you fail to find out, please select another product whose identity can be explained to you.

5.  After finding out what the product is, consider whether or not the product would be marketable in the United States.  Be prepared to describe why or why not. Use course concepts!
A. What about the form of the product?  Could it be changed to some other form for U.S. consumers?
B. How about instructions, warranties, “use by” dates, etc?
C. Is the product related to some specific aspect of the country of origin that may not be applicable in the U.S.?
D. How are the brand names, colors, and pictures used in the original package?  Are they related to familiar symbols in the home country?  Will those same color choices be appropriate in the U.S.?

6. Be sure to include all this information in your report. You will be expected to speak for approximately five minutes on the product you have found.  The class will need to apply international product knowledge to judge whether the product has potential for the U.S. market, and what adaptations, if any, would be needed.

7. Please include a picture of the product  in your paper or a photo of the label.

8. Complete the “Welcoming” assessment and place in an appendix. This format will be given out in class.

Term Project (25 points – group teamwork)
All presentations held during Tuesday, April 22, Thursday, April 24, and Tues, April 29
Each group must submit their preferred date. In the case of ties, a drawing will be held.

The goal of this project is to become knowledgeable on a topic of importance in international marketing, to become familiar with some of the literature in marketing and other business disciplines, and to use your skills critically in presenting an oral and written analysis of your project.  Your overall presentation time is 20 minutes, including both the class exercise and presentation.  The projects are chosen to try to illustrate to you various concepts in action in the global marketplace.

First, choose a topic from the last page of the syllabus. Copy this page and hand it in with your first, second, and third choices, plus any persons that you’d like to work with in a group. If you do not select anyone, I will group you based on your topic of interest.

Second, meet with me in January or February to develop a focus for your project.

Third:  here’s your job:  you are a member of a consulting team that has been called in to teach our class how to advise companies on the topic you have chosen. You have the responsibility to give them up-to-date information, in a way that is useful to a real corporation. You are responsible to figure out which class concepts should be used in presenting your information thoroughly.  Investigate your issue from several points of view in order to eliminate bias; that is, you must find information published by the U.S. Government, by the country or relevant area, and by some impartial third parties.

1. Class Exercise (group activity and presentation) – required part of presentation

This first part of your presentation is required to grab the class’s attention. Try to make them think about key points in your presentation in a fun and creative way!

a. Making a video on the topic, or obtaining one from a reliable source, which involves the class, such as showing sample ads, products, major issues in the country under consideration.
b. Quiz them in a game show format!  Show them what they don’t know!
c. Collecting data from the class on an earlier date. See how much they know about your topic! Tell them in your presentation.
d. Create a "role play" in which you act out a situation that illustrates something in your topic.
e. You can discuss "real?life" problems from your own experience.  Many of you are likely to be involved in professional marketing or managerial occupations, and may be able to draw on your actual expertise.

2. Presentation

The bulk of the 15-minute period should be spent in your PROFESSIONAL analysis of the topic area. Remember, I am not looking for a "cookbook" presentation ? there is not one right approach that is most acceptable.  Instead, I am looking for clear logical, thoroughness, professionalism, and usefulness of the information. Use the course concepts and models we have used. Don’t use irrelevant information.  Practice and estimate your time accurately! You are required to make 5 key overhead transparencies to use as a backup. Hand these in with your paper.

Be certain to prepare a two-page executive summary and a separate outline of your presentation that your colleagues in class can follow.  Hand this out in class. Also, turn in a one-page explanation of the division of group roles and responsibilities.

 3. Paper:  The Group report.

The paper should synthesize your group's analysis of the topic area, utilizing the information you have found throughout your research and development of the oral presentation.  The paper should resemble the type of document that would be prepared by a marketing management team of consultants to FIRM X on the topic area.  I will be grading it in part based on its ability to provide actionable suggestions to a hypothetical corporation.  Thus, it should be supported by exhibits, tables, pictures, graphs, etc., which can contribute to your presentation.  The maximum length is 20 pages for the entire group report, plus appendices. This is just a guideline; papers are often longer, given appendices, etc.

Each report should have:

a. Table of Contents (using page numbers)
b. Page numbers
c. An Introductory section
d. The body of the report (with titles and subheadings)
e. Conclusion.
f.  Appendices (e.g. charts relevant to your work)
g. A copy of your executive summary and outline
h. A description of your division of work, responsibilities for this project
i. Your annotated bibliography
j. Full list of references

Citing Other Works:

If you discuss someone else’s work in the text of your paper, citations to those references must appear in the body of your paper (Scarborough, 2001).  Just give either the last name of the author or a short title of the work, plus year of publication in quotes. The Reference section should provide full citations for articles, following this simple format:

Kaufman-Scarborough, Carol (2000), “Asian American Consumers as a Unique Market Segment:  Fact or Fallacy?” Journal of Consumer Marketing, Volume 17, No. 3 (Summer), 249-262.

Items found in postings on the web should be cited with enough information to let me check it out.  Provide the web site and how you found your source. Do not paste in long search-specific URLs.  It can look like this:

“Argentina:  Documentation,”  Posted By: Trade Information Center, retrieved at:

4. Annotated Bibliography (approx. 5 pages):  Individual Section, marked with your name

Each person should provide a short summary of the top 5 sources that you used for your part of the term project. Each person should explain why these pieces have contributed to your part of the project and to the project as a whole. In addition, each person should describe the types of information that they would have wanted, if the information were available.  In addition, please provide a short write up of any problems with obtaining reference materials. This helps our library system in identifying problem areas. Be sure to give a correct and complete citation.

. . . so why do we do it?

 Businesses today expect that you can work with others.  Recent graduates return and verify that group work is an essential skill on the job. Recruiters tell us that group projects are a valuable screening that they use for potential job applicants. There are some suggestions that can help you with this.  The group work experience is considered to be an important part of this course, as no matter where you end up, working with other people is likely to be an important part of your job.

1. Meet early.  Identify each person’s strengths and weaknesses.  Be honest!
2. Assign work based on each person’s strengths, weaknesses, and interests.
3. Get names, phone numbers, working schedules, etc. to facilitate your meeting times.
4. Remember, EVERYONE IS BUSY!  Just because you are busy, doesn’t mean that your absence won’t affect the others.
5. Additionally, each group member is EQUALLY responsible for the case outcome. If your group is having problems, meet with the instructor to develop ways to divide the work equitably and fairly. If you cannot come to a fair solution, I will assign equal workloads to each individual group member. Remember:  many of you have different skills and different levels of learning.  I will be glad to help you if you need some skill-building in meeting your group assignment.

 You will notice that your annotated bibliography is identified with your name. I will evaluate this and use it in computing the grade that you receive.  All persons in a group do not necessarily receive the same grade.

Each team member must also complete and hand in a "Peer Rating" Form, in a sealed envelope.  These are for my information, and will be kept confidential.  They will be used in judging group effectiveness and individual member contribution.

   International Marketing                  Spring 2003
Dr. Kaufman-Scarborough                 Bus. and Sci. 219

 Peer Rating

Each team member is required to submit a peer rating form. This form is to contain an evaluation of each of his/her team members. The form will be kept in strict confidence. In the space provided below please fill in the names of your team members and record your peer rating for each. Submit the form to me on or before the date your case is due.

The peer rating is based on a total awardable point base of 100 points for all team members other than yourself. You should award the 100 points among your team members based on a consideration of the following:

1.  Willingness of the individual to carry out jobs assigned.

2.  Ability of the individual to meet deadlines.

3.  Cooperation with other team members.

4.  Quality of the individual's work.

5. Individual's overall contribution to case reports and discussion and completion of the group project.

           Team Members                                Points Awarded





                                                                      Total = 100 points

Additional Comments:
(Use reverse side if necessary)

                                            Signature of the team member doing evaluation.

Name _______________________________________                         Term Project Selection Sheet
International Marketing Spring 2003,  Kaufman-Scarborough

Please consider the following topics carefully.  Determine your first, second, and third choices. Also please indicate any class members with whom you would prefer to work. You may hand in preferences for an entire group. Hand in by January 28th.

____  1.  Brand Identity in Europe:  Analyzing Campbell Soup’s Global Brands and Ventures

____  2.  How Do We Sell When the Country’s Currency is Unfamiliar?  Determining Affordable
                 and Acceptable Pricing Strategies in Mexico

____  3. Predicting Political Risk in a Changing Market: China Enters the WTO

_____ 4. Laws and Regulations on Genetically Modified Organisms:  EU and US Policies

____  5.  New Consumer Products for Unfamiliar Markets: What Do Consumers Need in China?

____   6. Advertising Strategies in Unfamiliar Cultures:  Predicting “Brad Pitt” in Malaysia

____  7.  Investigating Retail Distribution in Japan:  Impact of the Large Scale Retail Store Law

____  8. Advertising Soft Drinks in Countries with Unfamiliar Norms: Laws and Customs in Brazil
Names of Suggested Group Members – NOTE, groups are limited to 5 persons each.


Your major  ___________________  Interested in the Marketing Association?  Yes    No

Employment? ________________________________________
Hours per week? _____________________________________

Other Marketing Courses taken in the past?

Other Marketing Courses being taken this semester?

Any international experience or skills? Foreign language ability?

What would you like to learn in this class? Any specific topics of interest?