1. My office at school is Business and Science 219. I am generally in on class days. Please leave a message or call my home office if you need to reach me in an emergency. If you need an appointment and cannot make these office hours, please see me to schedule another time.
Rutgers Office Phone: 856-225-6592 (ans. Machine) Rutgers Fax: 856.225-6231
Home Office Phone: 856-429-1045 (ans. machine, fax, late calls ok)
E-mail is the best way to reach me. You all have E-mail accounts available to you, and you will need to use your account for this class.Please use your Rutgers clam account and have email forwarded to you if you use other providers, such as AOL You will be sent class notes, questions, and schedules via E-mail throughout the semester.
4. Prerequisites: Principles of Marketing (No Exceptions!)
Businesspersons have the responsibility to understand the complexities of global markets, but unfortunately many have only a surface appreciation for the subtle complexities which international markets can really present. The aim of this course is to provide a set of tools that are usable and practical in approaching market entry decisions and problems. You’ll learn to experience an unfamiliar market setting, learn how to use online international databases, and present a group project on a topic of global interest.
Text: International Marketing, by Philip R. Cateora and John L. Graham, Eleventh Edition, R.D. Irwin/McGraw Hill, New York, 2002.
This text has been chosen for its comprehensive information, presented in a readable, accurate fashion. Many international texts overemphasize summary statistics, cultural bloopers, and stereotypes, without presenting actual thinking and decision-making skills in cross-cultural settings. This widely-used text, by prominent authors, will outfit you with the ideas and vocabulary to analyze topics in International Marketing without creating an ethnocentric, US-dominant perspective. The text encourages you to think about cross?cultural markets in an informed, educated way.
International Marketing changes on a daily basis! Countries negotiate new agreements, currencies fail, political events take place, and so forth, which all change the environment of international business. You will be given handouts throughout the semester that illustrate and document such changes. We will access current information on the Internet in each class. You should become an expert in current global issues and where to find them. However, since there is so much change, some of the terms and ideas in the text will be dated, with new names and terms already in use. Don’t let this frustrate you.
Are you are Marketing major?
Is your major something else? I’ll assume that you recall topics
from Principles of Marketing, but will be glad to help if needed. Please
see me if you need some review on any Marketing concepts that are being
used in this course.
As business students, you are responsible to keep up to date on business practices around the world.
1. Library: http://www.libraries.rutgers.edu/rul/indexes/biz/biz.shtml
2. This web site is provided by the Trade Information Center at the U.S. Dept of Commerce. It can be found at: http://www.ita.doc.gov/td/tic/
3. Syllabus on my web site. The links on the web site have been tested and used. These are reliable sources that contain accurate data: http://crab.rutgers.edu/~ckaufman/
NOTE: searching on the Web should be done with care! There are many web sites that are inaccurate, biased, and worse. Library Reference Section: EXPORTERS’ ENCYCLOPEDIA – handout on exporting will be given in class
Grading Policies: The contribution of each assignment to the final grade is:
Tuesday, March 27
Sign up for your date!
Review/Last class - Tuesday Dec. 9th
Assignments: Planned Schedule (dates are approximate and subject to change)
Week 1, Sept. 2,4
Chapters 1, 2
Introduction, What is the Self Reference Criterion? Are you ethnocentric? McDonald's video
Are tariffs and trade barriers always protectionist? How do countries cooperate through global organizations?
a. Read current issues from the controversial WTO: http://www.wto.org/
b. The International Trade Commission: http://www.usitc.gov/
c. The United Nations: http://www.un.org/
d. Keep up to date on changes in tariffs and nontariff barriers. Here’s one of the best sites to use from the Trade Information Center at the U.S. Dept of Commerce. Tariff and Country Information sections are informative: http://www.ita.doc.gov/td/tic/
f. Discuss EU bans on foreign products, examples of children's products and U.S. beef. Video
Form Class Project Groups-
hand in any group preferences for working together on class project.
NOTE: SEpt. 9th - Last Day to hand in topics to study and suggested
Week 2, Sept. 9th,
Chapter 3: What is the Impact of Geography and History on World Trade?
So Where is Country X and What Should I Know About Its Location?? How can location impact product design and shipping?
Country History – example – let’s consider Hong Kong. How will changes affect its position in global trade? Video
a. World Factbook online, found at: http://www.odci.gov/cia/publications/factbook/index.html
b. Current and historical maps provided by University of Texas, found at:
Chapter 4/ Cultural
Dynamics, Norms, Values, Beliefs, Roles, Customs, Rituals,
Artifacts: Discuss Web Information Assignment (due Sept. 23rd)
a. Michigan State University site: http://globaledge.msu.edu/ibrd/
b. Translations can be deceiving: http://babelfish.altavista.com/translate.dyn
c. Business languages can be specific: http://www.businessspanish.com/
d. A country example: Japan JETRO site, go to the publications section at this URL: http://www.jetro.go.jp/
e. How does culture affect products: yogurt video
Begin Going International Films and Negotiations
Week 3, Sept. 16th
Going International Films
Chapter 5: Considering global business culture (continued); Business Customs: Imperatives, Adiaphora, Exclusives
Chapter 6: Political
Environment, Change, Stability, Redrawing Country Borders,
What is Political Vulnerability? What are Politically Sensitive Products?
Here is an informative place to start. This site will take you to government, laws, and media from the country’s point of view. Found at: http://www.politicalresources.net/
Michigan State University, Market Potential Indicators http://globaledge.msu.edu/ibrd/marketpot.asp
Week 4, Sept. 23, 25th - First assignment due - which country do you choose?
Chapter 7: Legal Environment,
VIDEO: Doing Business in Russia - the absence of laws also creates a difficult business environment
Laws and trade information for the Newly Independent States, found at: http://www.bisnis.doc.gov/
Chapter 8, Researching Global
If I have the "Perfect Product," How Can I Enter the Market???
Meanings of Secondary Data: How do data interpretations differ? What are the limitations?
World Factbook: If you were a citizen of Country X, what is your life expectancy?
UN Infonation: Go to UN school site, see “Country at a Glance” http://www.un.org/Pubs/CyberSchoolBus/infonation/e_infonation.htm
Week 5, Sept. 30,
Researching Global Markets, continued
Differences in Primary Research Techniques in Other Cultures
Read for class discussion - Nestle, The Infant Formula Incident, found in your textbook . This case is especially important given the spread of HIV. Consider the application of principles of ethics. NOTE: This case will appear on the midterm exam.
Review for Midterm
Chapter 9, Emerging Markets,
Measures of Economic Development - do they work?
How is economic development assessed for NICs? For BEMs?
What are reasonable measures for living standards? Whose living standards?
Tuesday, Oct. 7th - Midterm, covers chapters 1-8
Thursday, Oct. 9th
Chapter 10, Multinational Markets: Why do countries work together as a group?
Dissolution of Soviet Union ; What’s common about a common market??? We’ll look at several examples.
The European Union, found at: http://www.europa.eu.int/
NAFTA, the North American Free Trade Area, at: http://www.mac.doc.gov/nafta/menu1.htm
CEFTA, the Central European Free Trade Area, at: http://www.cefta.org
ECONOMIC COOPERATION ORGANIZATION: http://www.ecosecretariat.org/
Week 7, Oct. 14th and
Preference for Investigating Product presentation dates due by email - Oct. 14th
Chapter 11, Global Marketing Management , Methods of Market Entry
Strategic Planning for Global Marketing
Are there certain methods of market entry that are required? Are there market entry methods that create advantages or disadvantages in certain markets? What are countries telling us about how they want us to enter their countries? Do they want particular forms of business? Specific types of clearances?
Use the Trade Information Center site to determine the answers: http://www.ita.doc.gov/td/tic/
Week 8, Oct. 21 and 23rd
Chapter 12, Developing Consumer Products: Core Products,
Identifying Unmet Needs in Unfamiliar markets, Characteristics of Successful Innovations
What is "good" consumer behavior in a given country? How are products used?
Consider Mattel’s change of strategy with Barbie dolls. Adaptation vs. standardization.
Let’s consider a familiar
company, Campbell Soup, and learn about its various global products
See the “Campbell Around the World” section found at:
Chapter 13, Industrial
Products and Services
The importance of global sourcing and support are critical. Trade fairs are common points of contact. The importance of servicing products in global markets is nicely illustrated by Caterpillar’s site.
Videos on Coca Cola and Breathe
Right product design, adaptations
Week 9, Oct. 28th and
30th - Investigating Products in Unfamiliar Markets"
This is your 5-minute presentation (plus short write-up) of your product.
Week 10 - Nov. 4th
and 6th (Guest Prof Week)
Chapter 14, International Distribution Systems, selection of middlemen
a. Traditional retail in the bricks and mortar setting:
KFC Film - the adaptation of distribution for the Japanese market – an OLD film that depicts problems that still occur in today’s market entry decisions.
Examine McDonald’s Web site to learn how they have adapted their retail stores. Sites are listed by country. Found at: http://www.mcdonalds.com/
Coca Cola enters the Japanese market – video.(multilocal, ringi-sho form for agreement)
b. Global E-commerce - Identifying
country readiness for E-commerce. Web adaptations
Chapter 16, Promotion in
the Global Setting (NOT just Advertising!!!!)
How can we communicate with consumers in other countries and be sure that we mean what we say, and say what we mean? What are Media Differences, Perceptual Problems, Personal Selling, ADVERTISING FILM
a. A good reference is Advertising
Age’s Global web site, articles available on Business and Industry site:
b. Louisa Ha’s academic web site: http://www.bgsu.edu/departments/tcom/faculty/ha/intlad1.html#ac
c. Know This web portal of advertising: http://www.knowthis.com/advertising/examples.htm
Week 11, Nov. 11th
Continue Global promotion
Country-specific regulations – e.g. Victoria Secret in Middle East
Country-specific requirements – what disclosures must appear in advertising messages?
Country-specific cultural norms – what situations should and should NOT appear?
Some countries may be considerably more liberal than one’s home market, while others may be more strict
Week 12, Nov. 18th and
Chapter 18, Pricing for International Markets
What are Price Escalation and Countertrade? What does price convey in global markets?
Is there a price/quality linkage?? What is the impact of changing currencies?
Let’s consider the euro, the new currency of the European Union
Week 13, Nov. 25th
Chapter 17, Personal Selling, Techniques, Similarities and Differences
Personnel Issues, Training your employees for Global Markets
Sensitivity Exercises to know your market better
Week 14, Dec. 2nd and
4th - Presentations
Week 15: Dec. 9th
Chapter 15, Workshop on Export Trade Mechanics and Logistics
The U.S. Government export portal: http://www.export.gov/tcc/
FINAL EXAM PERIOD: MONDAY, Dec. 15th, from 2 to 5 pm
The class will focus on building strong analytical skills for global market evaluation, and particular attention will be paid to current and reliable international country data sources. If you work with me, you will finish the class as an expert on a topic in international marketing, with the capability of advising a firm as an international consultant. You are our future business leaders, and that is the perspective that I will take. Class participants will be expected to be up-to-date in class readings and make connections between current world events with topics discussed in class. You are encouraged to bring in examples that you have found, observed, or experienced.
Academic Dishonesty Policy: Cheating in any form will result in a grade of "F" being submitted in this course. Cheating is just that: it cheats YOU of learning and understanding the material covered in class.
Web sites: Similarly, there are many web sites that tell you that they are selling you reliable information that they have provided for you to “buy.” While the titles may sound good, can you trust them? Any use of such sites will receive an automatic “F”.
Testing: You are expected to be in class at the scheduled exam times. The instructor MUST be notified IN ADVANCE if you are unable to take an exam on time. Make-up tests are given only in the case of an extreme emergency or serious illness. Substantiation will be required in all cases.
Incompletes and Problems: If you find that you are having trouble completing course work or need further explanation of class topics, please schedule an appointment with the instructor. If you need this class for graduation, you should be sure that your performance is up to standard throughout the course. It is TOO LATE to wait until the last week of classes to ask for help. Office hours are held throughout the ENTIRE semester for this purpose. "Incompletes" will only be given through prior consultation with the instructor, under extreme circumstances.
Class attendance is expected; scheduling makeups and/or copying class notes ARE YOUR RESPONSIBILITY. Films and in-class handouts are part of the course material, and are considered eligible for inclusion on class exams. Class attendance will be taken during the course of the class and is used in the grading process.
Class participation is encouraged and sought. This is your class and you should make it as interesting as possible. In terms of grading, it is assumed that everyone starts out in the middle. Negative participation (disruption, sleeping, reading, etc) detracts from everyone's time; points will be deducted, rather than added for these types of behaviors. Thus the range of class participation grades is from -10 through +10. This can substantially affect your grade.
Web Information Assignment - due Tuesday, Sept. 23rd - 10 % of grade
Suppose you are in charge of taking ABC Corporation’s business overseas. You know that there are several important factors to look into for entering any new country. You have learned how to use the Trade Information Center web site to identify tariff and non-tariff barriers. You offer to make a comparative chart of Country x vs. Country Y so that the management team can determine which market to choose. Please fill out the chart below with the ten attributes that you judge to be critical in making the decision. I have started you out with seven key attributes. This semester we’ll compare and contrast Argentina and Venezuela.
Page 1 of report: Use the web site to gather background information on trade attributes of both countries. Using that information, rate each country’s attributes on a scale of 1 to 10, where 10 is the most conducive to trade. You may assign a 0 in extreme circumstances if you feel a major attribute does not exist.
Pages 2-5: Provide your logic for your ratings on a topic by topic basis. For example, in your first paragraph, discuss your ratings for Country X and Country Y on the availability of Free Trade Zones, comparing one to the other.
Conclusion: Finally, compute an overall score for each country and make a recommendation of which country you feel is a more favorable environment for trade. Would a weighted sum be more appropriate? Discuss briefly.
NOTE : ABC Corporation is a fictitious company with no type of business specified in order to emphasize general contrasts between Country X and Country Y. If a specific business were chosen, obvious country advantages would emerge given the specific needs of the population.
Web site address: http://www.ita.doc.gov/td/tic/.
Note: you may use other sources if needed.
|Free Trade zones, areas for assembly|
|Documentation: specific? complex?|
|Markings and labeling|
|Trade agreements with other countries|
|Prohibited imports: rationale|
|Attribute 8 (you fill in)|
|Attribute 9 (you fill in)|
|Attribute 10 (you fill in)|
|Comprehensive Score (sum)|
This is the assignment attempts to give you an appreciation for ethnocentricity in product design. You also will learn what it feels like to be a “foreigner” in an unfamiliar market. NOTE: Outstanding examples will be used on the final exam in applications questions.
Relevance and Skill-Building: A difficult and much-needed skill in International Marketing is the ability to discover and to think about consumers' and organizations' needs in different cultures, to interpret those needs into products, and to market those products in ways which are meaningful to their target markets. This investigation asks you to put yourself in the place of the foreign consumer, encountering your product for the first time.
Go to a shopping area that specializes in the native tastes of some ethnic group. There are numerous markets in Philadelphia and throughout New Jersey that specialize in the foods and products desired by various ethnic groups. Please see me if you need suggestions and/or directions.
1. Find/buy a product which you cannot identify; write down your first impressions of what you think the product is made of and what it is used for. (Bring it to class for discussion – don’t spend too much!).
2. What cues are there on the product? If it is packaged, what information can you find? If it is not packaged, did the store signs give you any information? What information would you want as a consumer?
3. Describe what section of the store your product is placed in, i.e.: describe what products were near it. (If you cannot recognize these products, describe what they look like).
4. Attempt to interview store management or one of the retail clerks to find out what the product really is (you may not always be successful in this attempt!) If you fail to find out, please select another product whose identity can be explained to you.
5. After finding out
what the product is, consider whether or not the product would be marketable
in the United States. Be prepared to describe why or why not. Use
A. What about the form of the product? Could it be changed to some other form for U.S. consumers?
B. How about instructions, warranties, “use by” dates, etc?
C. Is the product related to some specific aspect of the country of origin that may not be applicable in the U.S.?
D. How are the brand names, colors, and pictures used in the original package? Are they related to familiar symbols in the home country? Will those same color choices be appropriate in the U.S.?
6. Be sure to include all this information in your report. You will be expected to speak for approximately five minutes on the product you have found. The class will need to apply international product knowledge to judge whether the product has potential for the U.S. market, and what adaptations, if any, would be needed.
7. Please include a picture of the product in your paper or a photo of the label.
8. Complete the “Welcoming” assessment and place in an appendix. This format will be given out in class.
Term Project (25 points
– group teamwork)
All presentations held during Tuesday, Dec. 2nd, and Thursday, Dec. 4th
Each group must submit their preferred date. In the case of ties, a drawing will be held.
The goal of this project is to become knowledgeable on a topic of importance in international marketing, to become familiar with some of the literature in marketing and other business disciplines, and to use your skills critically in presenting an oral and written analysis of your project. Your overall presentation time is 20 minutes, including both the class exercise and presentation. The projects are chosen to try to illustrate to you various concepts in action in the global marketplace.
First, choose a topic from the last page of the syllabus. Copy this page and hand it in with your first, second, and third choices, plus any persons that you’d like to work with in a group. If you do not select anyone, I will group you based on your topic of interest.
Second, meet with me in September or October tto develop a focus for your project.
Third: here’s your job: you are a member of a consulting team that has been called in to teach our class how to advise companies on the topic you have chosen. You have the responsibility to give them up-to-date information, in a way that is useful to a real corporation. You are responsible to figure out which class concepts should be used in presenting your information thoroughly. Investigate your issue from several points of view in order to eliminate bias; that is, you must find information published by the U.S. Government, by the country or relevant area, and by some impartial third parties.
1. Class Exercise (group activity and presentation) – required part of presentation
This first part of your presentation is required to grab the class’s attention. Try to make them think about key points in your presentation in a fun and creative way!
a. Making a video on the
topic, or obtaining one from a reliable source, which involves the class,
such as showing sample ads, products, major issues in the country under
b. Quiz them in a game show format! Show them what they don’t know!
c. Collecting data from the class on an earlier date. See how much they know about your topic! Tell them in your presentation.
d. Create a "role play" in which you act out a situation that illustrates something in your topic.
e. You can discuss "real?life" problems from your own experience. Many of you are likely to be involved in professional marketing or managerial occupations, and may be able to draw on your actual expertise.
The bulk of the 15-minute period should be spent in your PROFESSIONAL analysis of the topic area. Remember, I am not looking for a "cookbook" presentation ? there is not one right approach that is most acceptable. Instead, I am looking for clear logical, thoroughness, professionalism, and usefulness of the information. Use the course concepts and models we have used. Don’t use irrelevant information. Practice and estimate your time accurately! You are required to make 5 key overhead transparencies to use as a backup. Hand these in with your paper.
Be certain to prepare a two-page
executive summary and a separate outline of your presentation that your
colleagues in class can follow. Hand this out in class. Also, turn
in a one-page explanation of the division of group roles and responsibilities.
3. Paper: The Group report.
The paper should synthesize your group's analysis of the topic area, utilizing the information you have found throughout your research and development of the oral presentation. The paper should resemble the type of document that would be prepared by a marketing management team of consultants to FIRM X on the topic area. I will be grading it in part based on its ability to provide actionable suggestions to a hypothetical corporation. Thus, it should be supported by exhibits, tables, pictures, graphs, etc., which can contribute to your presentation. The maximum length is 20 pages for the entire group report, plus appendices. This is just a guideline; papers are often longer, given appendices, etc.
Each report should have:
a. Table of Contents (using
b. Page numbers
c. An Introductory section
d. The body of the report (with titles and subheadings)
f. Appendices (e.g. charts relevant to your work)
g. A copy of your executive summary and outline
h. A description of your division of work, responsibilities for this project
i. Your annotated bibliography
j. Full list of references
Citing Other Works:
If you discuss someone else’s work in the text of your paper, citations to those references must appear in the body of your paper (Scarborough, 2001). Just give either the last name of the author or a short title of the work, plus year of publication in quotes. The Reference section should provide full citations for articles, following this simple format:
Kaufman-Scarborough, Carol (2000), “Asian American Consumers as a Unique Market Segment: Fact or Fallacy?” Journal of Consumer Marketing, Volume 17, No. 3 (Summer), 249-262.
Items found in postings on the web should be cited with enough information to let me check it out. Provide the web site and how you found your source. Do not paste in long search-specific URLs. It can look like this:
Posted By: Trade Information Center, retrieved at:
4. Annotated Bibliography (approx. 5 pages): Individual Section, marked with your name
Each person should provide a short summary of the top 5 sources that you used for your part of the term project. Each person should explain why these pieces have contributed to your part of the project and to the project as a whole. In addition, each person should describe the types of information that they would have wanted, if the information were available. In addition, please provide a short write up of any problems with obtaining reference materials. This helps our library system in identifying problem areas. Be sure to give a correct and complete citation.
WORKING WITH GROUPS IS
NOT ALWAYS EASY
. . . so why do we do it?
Businesses today expect that you can work with others. Recent graduates return and verify that group work is an essential skill on the job. Recruiters tell us that group projects are a valuable screening that they use for potential job applicants. There are some suggestions that can help you with this. The group work experience is considered to be an important part of this course, as no matter where you end up, working with other people is likely to be an important part of your job.
1. Meet early. Identify
each person’s strengths and weaknesses. Be honest!
2. Assign work based on each person’s strengths, weaknesses, and interests.
3. Get names, phone numbers, working schedules, etc. to facilitate your meeting times.
4. Remember, EVERYONE IS BUSY! Just because you are busy, doesn’t mean that your absence won’t affect the others.
5. Additionally, each group member is EQUALLY responsible for the case outcome. If your group is having problems, meet with the instructor to develop ways to divide the work equitably and fairly. If you cannot come to a fair solution, I will assign equal workloads to each individual group member. Remember: many of you have different skills and different levels of learning. I will be glad to help you if you need some skill-building in meeting your group assignment.
You will notice that your annotated bibliography is identified with your name. I will evaluate this and use it in computing the grade that you receive. All persons in a group do not necessarily receive the same grade.
Each team member must also complete and hand in a "Peer Rating" Form, in a sealed envelope. These are for my information, and will be kept confidential. They will be used in judging group effectiveness and individual member contribution.
Dr. Kaufman-Scarborough Bus. and Sci. 219
Each team member is required to submit a peer rating form. This form is to contain an evaluation of each of his/her team members. The form will be kept in strict confidence. In the space provided below please fill in the names of your team members and record your peer rating for each. Submit the form to me on or before the date your case is due.
The peer rating is based on a total awardable point base of 100 points for all team members other than yourself. You should award the 100 points among your team members based on a consideration of the following:
1. Willingness of the individual to carry out jobs assigned.
2. Ability of the individual to meet deadlines.
3. Cooperation with other team members.
4. Quality of the individual's work.
5. Individual's overall contribution to case reports and discussion and completion of the group project.
Team Members Points Awarded
Total = 100 points
(Use reverse side if necessary)
Signature of the team member doing evaluation.
Term Project Selection Sheet
International Marketing Fall 2003, Kaufman-Scarborough
Please consider the following topics carefully. Determine your first, second, and third choices. Also please indicate any class members with whom you would prefer to work. You may hand in preferences for an entire group. Hand in by Sept. 9th.
____ 1. Cultural Do’s and Taboo’s in International Markets: Learning about People in India
____ 2. Evaluating New Markets: Assessment of Political and Economic Risks in Argentina
____ 3. Country of Origin and Local Content Issues: Can You Really "Buy American??"
_____ 4. Laws and Regulations on Genetically Modified Organisms: EU and US Policies
____ 5. New Consumer Products for Unfamiliar Markets: Selling Dental Care in Brazil
____ 6. Advertising Strategies in Unfamiliar Cultures: When is Culture Relevant?
____ 7. Investigating Retail Distribution in China: How Do Consumers Make Purchases?
____ 8. NAFTA: A Winner or Loser for the U.S.?
____ 9. Can All Products
be Standardized for Global Markets? Mattel’s New Strategy
Names of Suggested Group
Members – NOTE, groups are limited to 5 persons each.
Your major ___________________ Interested in the Marketing Association? Yes No
Hours per week? _____________________________________
Other Marketing Courses taken
in the past?
Other Marketing Courses being
taken this semester?
Any international experience
or skills? Foreign language ability?
What would you like to learn
in this class? Any specific topics of interest?