Global Marketing Strategy   53:630:515   3 credits – Fall 2005
Thursday 6:00 to 8:40 pm, BSB 334
 Dr. Carol Kaufman-Scarborough - Office BSB 219

1.  Prerequisites: Marketing Management 630:508  (No Exceptions!)

2.  Course Description/Objectives:  The objective of the course is to develop your knowledge and understanding of the global marketing environment through key concepts, and tools, and theory.  The course challenges you to think critically about global competition.  Specifically, the course is designed to provide you with (a) familiarity with the problems and perspectives of marketing across national boundaries and within foreign countries; (b) an understanding of consumer similarities and differences outside the home country; (c) the analytical ability to make marketing decisions concerning all parts of the marketing mix (product development, branding, promotion, pricing, and distribution); (d) competence in researching trade laws and regulations in other markets; (e) knowledge of global analytical frameworks and tools; and (f) an understanding of the current strategies of major global firms.

3.  Attendance:  Class attendance and preparation are expected. You should be prepared for every class.  If for some reason you are not prepared, please let me know before the start of the class.  This saves us both the embarrassment of my calling on you.  I plan to open every class by asking someone to summarize major topics of the day.  Please inform me of any expected absences. It is likely that many of you are busy professionals with career and possibly family obligations, so please keep me informed.

4.  “Resident Experts”:  Many of your companies are likely to be involved in some area of Global Marketing, and an area we are discussing may be your area of expertise. Others may be interested in pursuing a career in global marketing. Please feel free to raise company issues and individual interests in class.

5.  Readings
Text: Global Marketing Management, Third Edition, Masaaki Kotabe and Kristiaan Helsen (2004), New York: Wiley.   This text has been chosen for its comprehensive information, presented in a readable, accurate fashion. Selected case studies are available on the text web site:,,_0471230626_BKS_1783____,00.html

Supplemental Readings:  Online reserve readings and class handouts.

6.  Communications
A. My office at school is Business and Science 219.
B. Office Hours: Tuesday 2:00 to 3:00 pm, Tuesday and Thursday: 4:30 to 5:30, and by appointment.
C. E-mail:
D. Cell phone with voice mail:  856-577-8767      Rutgers Office Phone: 856.225.6592

7.  Teaching Methodology
The course will build on your expertise in business using readings, films, and discussions on global marketing topics.  The text contains several cases involving well-known corporations and their global strategies. You are encouraged to bring in examples that you have found, observed, or experienced in your own careers or personal lives.  Each night we’ll have case discussions, class exercises, and videos.

8. Fast Facts: Here are some global web updates and sources that provide current information.

Want to know the latest information about a country?

Want to know what the “Big Mac” index is all about?

What’s new with the EU?

Want to know how to interact with persons from another country?

Want to know what McDonald’s serves in other countries?

Want to know what Campbell Soup sells in other countries?

Want to know how many people are using the Internet in a specific country?

Want to know if your ad will REALLY translate into another language?


As MBA students, you are responsible to keep up to date on business practices around the world. Rutgers has provided many ways for you to have cutting-edge information through various sources at no additional cost to you.

1. Business Resources at Library:
a. Business and Industry Database – this is one of the best links to trade and global information.  Keywords are accessed through a series of pull-down menus.
b. Business Insights:  provides over 100 full-text strategic management and market analysis reports on selected industry sectors: Consumer Markets, Healthcare, Energy, Financial Services, and Technology.
c. Business Source Premier:  academic and trade articles
d. Factiva:  access to current articles from The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, The Economist, Financial Times, and the South China Morning Post. Hint:  Go to “News Pages” and use the pull downs to get the International topics.
e. LexisNexis Academic:  wide range of articles.
f. Marketline: Business Information Center – detailed and current company and industry reports, SWOT analyses

2. Syllabus on my web site.  The links on the web site have been tested and used. These are reliable sources that contain accurate data:

 Grading Policies:  The contribution of each assignment to the final grade is:

Participation and Readings  -   10%    Every class

Market Opportunity Paper  -   20%   October 13th – class discussion and group writeup due
                                         NOTE CHANGE OF DATE!!!!!!!

Global Products Roundtable - 20%    October 27 – class discussion and individual writeup due

Discussion Case                   - 30% Your assigned night
                                                            20% - Presenting group report
                                                            10% - individual audience member reports

Final Exam                           -  20%   December 22  - Part will be take-home.
Total                                    -  100%

Groups:  Groups will be formed the first night of class.  Each group will be made up of a number of students, and will work as a unit throughout the semester.  Groups are responsible for the Market Opportunity paper and one Discussion case to be presented in class. Both require short group reports.

Cases:    Each group is required to lead a class discussion of the pre-assigned case.  Operationally, each group will present its summary with a focus on the course topic(s) to the class, and then encourage the class members to participate in critical discussion and debate on the topic(s).  The group may use PowerPoint, transparencies, handouts, and/or any other presentation materials that will facilitate understanding of the topic.  Please turn in a hard copy of your presentation material to me at the beginning of the class.  The presenting group will be evaluated based on 1) its presentation of the case and 2) its ability to lead class discussions.  Class members will turn in a two-page typewritten summary of the case.

In other words, by the end of the semester, each group will have presented one assigned case and written a total of five two-page case summaries.

Assigned Readings,  Models, Concepts, Readings

The articles below are on electronic reserve. Go to the library web site, IRIS, click on “Reserve Desk”, and input my name “Scarborough, Carol” or “Global Marketing”. You can print the articles out for yourself or read them online. NOTE:  I plan on covering selected topics and frameworks in the text.

Session 1 -  Sept 1: Introduction, Overview of course, form groups
Use of Library resources and reserves:  Wal-Mart SWOT on Marketline, using online library databases
Discussion of first assignment:  “Market Opportunity Analysis”

C. 1&2:   What is global marketing? What is globalization?  Global organizations, Multinational markets, Protectionism and Cooperation


Levitt, Theodore, “The globalization of markets,”  Harvard Business Review, May/Jun83, Vol. 61 Issue 3, 92 – 101.

Tedlow, Richart and Rawi Abdelal (2003), “Historical Perspective:  Levitt Shaped the Debate,” HBSWK.

Ernst and Young Report:  Promoting Entrepreneurship and Investment in the Emerging Markets

Cavusgil , S. Tamer (1997), "Measuring The Potential of Emerging Markets : An Indexing Approach,”
Business Horizons, January-February, Vol. 40 Number 1, 87-91.

Video:   Breathe Right, Chinese Expansion

Session 2  -  Sept 8:   Cultural, political, and legal systems
C. 4, Culture is a major influence on marketing variables. How do norms, values, beliefs, roles, customs, rituals, and artifacts affect behavior? How are consumers the same, and how are consumers different? What are cultural universals?

ABCD Paradigm – what are the parts of the model?
Meaning of colors, Marketing in Islamic Context
High and Low Context Countries
Hofstede’s classification

C. 5, How can political systems and legal requirements affect the marketing mix? Where can my company find trade regulations on a Country-by-Country basis?  Suppose that my department needs to investigate labeling laws in Brazil. What language is required, what information must be provided, where should labels be placed? Tariff and nontariff barrier chart.


Raju, P.S (1995), “Consumer behavior in global markets: the A-B-C-D paradigm and its application to eastern Europe and the Third World.” Journal of Consumer Marketing, Vol. 12 Issue 5, p2-23.

Le Guay, Peter (2003), “The regulation of advertising to children in Australia,” in Advertising & Marketing to Children,” World Advertising Research Center, January–March 2003, 63-67.

Nill, Alexander, John A. Schibrowsky, and James. W. Peltier (2004), “The Impact of Competitive Pressure on Students’ Ethical Decision-Making in a Global Setting,” Marketing Education Review, 14 (1), 62-73.

Video:  Middle Class in Vietnam; Coca Cola in Japan
Prepare:  Marketline on Coca Cola

Session 3 - Sept 15:   Political and Legal Environment (continued), Global Marketing Research
How is political risk assigned?  What other types of risk are there?
Prepare Discussion Question 2, p. 173

C. 6, Global Marketing Research: secondary and primary data, what kind of information is needed?

Secondary research:  What is reliable information?  Where can I get it?
Primary research:  Research techniques to use? Statistical analogies.  Funny Faces Scale.
Prepare:  Which countries have the most telephones?  What’s wrong with these measures?


Ewing, Michael T., Albert Caruana, and George M. Zinkhan (2002), “On the Cross-National generalisability and Equivalence of Advertising Response Scales Developed in the USA,” International Journal of Advertising, 21, 323-343.

Ernst and Young report:  “The Path to Success for Retailers and Consumer Brands in China”

Video:  Colgate-Palmolive in Mexico (primary research on laundry behaviors)
Photo Essay:  South African Townships 2003 Laundry

McDonald’s Global Strategies :  How does McD’s know what products to offer, how to design their stores?  Take a look at
Prepare:  Marketline on McDonald’s

Session 4 - Sept 22:
C. 7 Market segmentation and types of positioning approaches

1. Segmenting consumers within a market  – Chinese  p. 214
2: Grouping countries into segments -  page 207, cluster analysis (appendix)
3. Identifying segments of similar consumers across country boundaries – Universal/global segments
4. Does the “gray market of senior citizens” exist in all countries? P. 215
Prepare:  What is the life expectancy in Burkina Faso?  In South Africa?
5. Positioning/segmentation strategies
C. 8, Industry Globalization Drivers
Regionalization and emerging markets, Drivers Model – p. 237 (Yip), “lead market” concept,
SWOT analysis p. 261


Kumar, V. and Anish Nagpal (2001), “Segmenting Markets:  Look before you leap.” Marketing Research, 8-13.

Ernst and Young “Promoting Entrepreneurship and Investment in Emerging Markets”

Video:  General Mills organization by product

Discussion Case:  Starbucks – all read and discuss
 Can consumers be segmented in their coffee drinking patterns?
 SWOT analysis of Starbucks

Session 5  - Sept 29
C. 9, Identifying market entry preferences.
Logical Flow Model (P. 266); Opportunity matrix (p. 268) Entry modes (p. 270)


Farrell, Diana (2005), “Are You Ready to Go Global?” HBSWK.

Bordier, Anne (2003), “Global Retailing: Why China tops the IGD Market Index,” IGD Research.

C. 10 Sourcing – interface between Marketing and Management.
Value chain (p. 306). Interfaces Model (p. 308). How can we choose optimal methods of sourcing? Do we have “Hollow Corporations” in Camden, NJ??  Read p. 319. Is the World really “Flat”??

Videos:  Subway in Global Markets, VW in Mexico

Session 6 – October 6

Market Opportunity Evaluation Due -  Discussion


Silverthorne, Sean (2005), “The Rise of Innovation in Asia,” HBSWK.
Lagace, Martha (2005), “The South Asian Consumer Market:  How Big is the Potential?” HBSWK.
Discussion Case:  The Gap

Session 7 – October 13:  Global Products and Global Brands

C. 11 and 12, Global product development.

Analytical product models, tests;  New Product Screening Model;  Conjoint Analysis;  Country of origin – does it really matter?  How can it affect product success or failure?  Is it possible to create global brands? In attempting to do so, what can be standardized?  Branding and country of origin effects.  Name changeover strategies.
Campbell Soup example:

Discuss Global Product Roundtable – diffusion characteristics.


Aaker, David A. and Erich Joachimsthaler (1999), “The Lure of Global Branding,” Harvard Business Review, November-December, 137-144.

Quelch, John (2003), “Will American Brands be a Casulty of War?” HBSWK, April 21, 2003.

Videos   Dasani Failure – could it have succeeded in the U.K.?
               Japan as a standard-setter (The Case of Qoo)

Session 8 - Oct 20:  Financial issues, Pricing in Global Markets

C. 3 Financial environment:
Asian financial crisis, monetary changes. The Big Mac Index. Effects of recession on consumer strategies (p. 82).  Has the euro been a success?

C. 13, Global Pricing issues
Price escalation, price transparency, weak/strong currencies.  Anti-dumping regulations. Countertrade. IKEA’s pricing strategy.


Simmons L.C. and R.M. Schindler (2003), “Cultural Superstitions and the Price Endings Used in Chinese Advertising,” Journal of International Marketing, 11 (2), 101-111.
Discussion on pricing and packaging for markets in financial uncertainty
Video:  Hypermarkets in Japan
 Discussion Case:  Danone in the United States

Session 9 - Oct 27 :  Global Product Roundtable

Reading:  Lagace, Martha (2003),”Candy in bags and other U.S. Oddities,” HBSWK.

Discuss innovation characteristics

Video:  Bringing Dat’l Do It Sauce to Japan

Session 10 - Nov. 3:  Communications and Advertising in Global Markets

C 14 Communications

Specific encoding when communicating with consumers in various countries, media regulations. Advertising, promotion, adaptation, pattern advertising.  Can an ad be truly global? Advertising to children. Are discount coupons allowed in all markets?  How about product promotions such as giveaways?
Kidon Media Link provides access to global media:


Jeong, Jaeseok, Marye Tharp, and Huhn Choi (2002), “Exploring the missing point of view in international advertising management,” International Journal of Advertising, 21, 293-321.
Video:  Advertising examples; advertising regulations – relate to Malaysia example p. 437.
 Discussion Case:   Motorola in China (positioning and brand competition)

Session 11 - Nov 10

Guest Professors’ Week Presentation

C, 15 Personal selling

How does culture affect the ways that people think about personal selling? About women in business?  Expatriates? What are the roles of salespeople in Country X?  How do they sell? What has your experience been? What makes you comfortable/uncomfortable in interacting with persons in a business meeting? In a social situation?
Video:  Bribery

Session 12 - Nov. 17:  Personal Selling and Retailing in Global Markets
C16, Retailing and Distribution

How do people buy in Country X? Given that, how should we sell?  What is the retail industry like in different markets? What conditions, laws, and traditions affect our market entry?
Video:  KFC classic
Discussion Case:   Honda in Europe (is the marketing mix the same?)

Session 13 - Dec. 1:  Retailing and E-Commerce in Global Markets
Finish Retailing in Global Markets
C. 19 E-commerce in Global Markets

How widespread is Internet use around the world?  What are barriers to the ABCD model?  Do all persons have delivery? Credit cards? Computers at home?  How differently might you shop if you had to do so in an internet café?
Readings:  Ernst and Young Global Top100 Retailers
Videos:  Friday’s Strategies for Global Expansion, EU and the Internet
Discussion Case:  Sanex in Europe (Can Sanex become a Euro brand?)

Session 14 - Dec. 8
C. 17, Export and Import Management
Developing an exporting strategy:  using tariff and non-tariff barriers. How is an export market chosen?

Review and preparation for final
Discussion Case:  Wal-Mart in Brazil (Fixing the strategy)

Dec. 22 - Final Examination – 6:00 to 9:00 pm

 Classroom Policies/Expectations

Come to class ready to talk about the assigned chapters and readings!  You are most likely participating in businesses that have some strategic connections to the global markets.  Some of you are resident experts on some specific global area.  Perhaps you have some background experience, whether culturally, legally, managerially, etc.  This is your class and you should make it as interesting as possible.  In terms of grading, it is assumed that everyone starts out in the middle. Negative participation (disruption, sleeping, reading, text messaging, etc) detracts from everyone's time; points will be deducted, rather than added for these types of behaviors.  Thus the range of class participation grades is from  10 through +10.  This can substantially affect your grade.

Academic Dishonesty Policy:  Cheating/plagiarism in any form will result in a grade of "F" being submitted in this course.  Cheating is just that:  it cheats YOU of learning and understanding the material covered in class. Plagiarism is more tempting with the wealth of information available on line. When in doubt, cite it!

Late Assignments/Testing:  You are expected to be in class at the scheduled exam and assignment times. Assignments will not be accepted later than one week after their due date, and will receive one letter grade penalty, unless negotiated in advance. You must notify the instructor IN ADVANCE if you are unable to take an exam on time.  Make up tests are given only in the case of an extreme emergency or serious illness.  Substantiation will be required.

Incompletes and Problems:  If you find that you are having trouble completing course work or need further explanation of class topics, please schedule an appointment with the instructor.  If you need this class for graduation, you should be sure that your performance is up to standard throughout the course.  It is TOO LATE to wait until the last week of classes to ask for help.  Office hours are held throughout the ENTIRE semester for this purpose. "Incompletes" will only be given through prior consultation with the instructor, under extreme circumstances.

Class attendance is expected; scheduling make ups and/or copying class notes ARE YOUR RESPONSIBILITY.  Films and in class handouts are part of the course material, and are consid¬ered eligible for inclusion on class exams.  On occasion, class attendance will be taken during the course of the class    such information may be used in the grading process.

Market Opportunity Evaluation – due October 13th - NOTE CHANGE OF DATE!
A Short Group Report

Your team has been assigned to investigate one specific South American market for consumer laundry products. Each team will focus on a specific market:  Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Peru, and Venezuela.  Your analysis must cover the points below in 4-5 pages. Please make a copy of your matrix to hand out to the entire class.

1. Introduction of your market

2. Marketing Research:

a. Use of Global Edge Market Potential Index:  explain your country’s ranking on the index. Feel free to use the secondary sources used in developing the index in your discussion.

b. Information from the World Factbook.

c. Information on trade laws, tariff barriers, etc.

d. You are free to include any other sources, such as Executive Planet, Marketline.

e. Produce a table like that below
Country Information   Findings Ranking 1 to 10 (high)
Market Potential Index   Index = ?  
World Factbook    
   Electricity throughout country    
Trade Information Site    
   Free Trade Zones, Areas for Assembly    
   Markings and labeling    
   Member of multinational group    
   Prohibited imports, regulated products    
Globalization Drivers    
Final Score     

3. Summary and recommendations. What are strengths and weaknesses of this market?  What additional information should the company obtain before making a decision?

Global Products Roundtable (20 points)   due October 27th

Relevance and Skill Building:  A difficult and much needed skill in Global Marketing is the ability to discover and to think about consumers' and organizations' needs in different cul¬tures, to interpret those needs into products, and to market those products in ways which are meaningful to their target markets.  This investigation asks you to put yourself in the place of the foreign consumer, encountering your product for the first time.

First, select an ethnic group other than your own that you would like to study. Go to a shopping area that specializes in the native foods of that group. There are shops throughout South Jersey which also specialize in certain ethnic products, such as Indian, Polish, etc. Please see me if you need suggestions and/or directions provided by other students. Then follow the steps below in writing up your report. We will have an “unfamiliar products” night in class in which you will be required to speak about your experience to the class for 5-10 minutes. Please bring the product and describe it during your remarks (do not go to any unnecessary expense!).  DO NOT USE POWERPOINT.

Introduction:  Describe the ethnic group that you are studying, name and address of store, etc.

Body of the Report:

1. Find/buy a product which you cannot identify; write down your first impressions of what you think the product is made of and what it is used for. (Bring it to class for discussion.).

2. What cues are there on the product?  If it is packaged, what information can you find?  If it is not packaged, did the store signs give you any information?  What information would you want as a consumer?

3. Describe what section of the store your product is placed in, i.e.: describe what products were near it.  (If you can not recognize these products, describe what they look like).

4. Attempt to interview store management or one of the retail clerks to find out what the product really is (you may not always be successful in this attempt!) If you fail to find out, please select another product whose identity can be explained to you. Or, use the web to find out.  Web sites like the following can help:

5. After finding out what the product is, consider whether or not the product would be marketable in the United States.  Place yourself in the role of the product manager who is searching for products to import to the United States. Be prepared to describe why or why not you would want to proceed with this product:
a. Give the pros and cons
b. Tell if the product would be standardized, adapted, or completely changed
c.  Discuss the types of data that you would want in order to make your presentation
     to management.  Remember, your decision is simply a preliminary call whether to
      proceed with a market investigation!!

6. Please provide a photo of the product and its labeling in an Appendix.

NOTE:  This is a good assignment to invite your family or friends to participate in your search.

Case Discussion Leadership  (20 points)   - your assigned night
Our discussion takes place during the last 45 minutes of class, as assigned

We will read several cases in this class. The first case will be for class discussion. The remaining cases are “discussion cases” that will be prepared and presented by one of our class groups, with the audience members handing in short individuals writeups. This is not a traditional case presentation. Instead, it is a teaching case, in which you are required to use appropriate course tools and Web sites in leading the class in analyzing the case.  You lead the discussion; you teach the case.

NOTE:   For each assigned case, every student is responsible to go to the Marketline online index and become familiar with the company under discussion.

As Discussion Leaders, you are responsible for the following:

1. Reading the case thoroughly, and preparing a 5-minute summary of the case, to be presented to the class with overheads.  Be clear and direct; do not just repeat the case.

2.  Leading the discussion, developing a set of discussion questions that involves the class. That is, your grade depends on how well you stimulate the class to work through the solution.  Be creative!  Use questions, matrices, Websites, role-plays, etc.  in covering the following areas.  Remember, there are certain key points that each case is designed to teach and to illustrate.  You need to figure out what each case is attempting to teach and which skills are to be learned.

The presentation and the report must contain:

a.) Central Problem:  Define clearly and concisely the basic problem in the situation.
b.) Analysis of Situation:  What tools and concepts from this course can help us in analyzing the case? SWOT analysis for this company related to the problem of interest.
c.)  Secondary Data: Identify, justify, and use five sources of information which you feel are the most useful and appropriate. Show the class how you did it.  Involve them in learning how these work!  Be sure that the class knows how to find them.
d.)  Identify Alternative Strategies: Based on the analysis in b., identify possible alternative strategies to cope with the problem defined in a. Involve the class in evaluating the pros and cons.
e.)  Course of Action: Get the class involved in a discussion of recommended courses of action.

3.  You are responsible for bringing the class to closure on the case.  I will take the perspective of the Board, who will evaluate your analysis.

What’s Due:
The Presenting group:  Each group should prepare a 4-5 (approximately)  word processed over¬view of the day's case, covering the points listed above. Tell me how you planned to create class discussion and what the key global concepts were that you wanted to teach.  Did you accomplish your goals?  This should be handed in the week following your role as discussion leaders, so that you can incorporate the comments of the class and the overall discussion success/failure.

The audience members:  Prepare your own individual 1-2 page (approximately) word processed over¬view of the day's case, covering the points listed above.

You have 45 minutes to complete the Discussion. If you go overtime, the class will have to stay late. It is your responsibility to keep discussion on track.

Name _______________________________________   Global Marketing Strategy Fall 2005

In order to assign Term Case Groups, I need some input from you! Please look over your schedules and the cases, and hand this in during the first class.

1. Discussion Groups: Please indicate your top three preferences for your case, where 1 is best, 2 is second best, and 3 is third best.

_____      Oct 6th :          The Gap
_____      Oct. 20th:        Danone bottled water
_____      Nov. 3rd:        Motorola:  China Experience
_____      Nov. 17th:      Honda in Europe
_____      Dec. 1st:         Sanex in Europe (liquid soap)
_____      Dec. 8th:        Wal Mart Operations in Brazil

3.  Suggested group members (3-4 total) – 2 group assignments, Market Opportunity and Case

4. Best way to reach you:    Tel:      _________________________________
         Email: _________________________________
         Email2 :  _________________________________
          Fax:     _________________________________

5.  Other Marketing Courses taken in the past?

6.  Other Marketing Courses being taken this semester?

7.  Country of origin?  Global experience?

8.  What are your goals for this course?  Is there any skill in particular that you would like to acquire?

9.  What would you like to learn in this class? Any specific topics of interest?

10. Employment?__________________________________________________

11. Is your company involved in global  business?    _________________________

12.  Any expected absences?? ________________