What Can Attitudes tell us about Consumers?
Consumers who like sushi are likely to eat it
Consumers who like rich ice cream are likely to eat it
Consumers who like to “eat healthy” will be likely to eat things that are not high in calories
 

In reality . . .
BUT – having a positive attitude does not mean that we’ll buy a specific product
We distinguish between attitude toward the object and attitude toward the behavior of purchase
 

What is an Attitude?
It represents what we like and dislike
An attitude is a lasting general evaluation of something - it has knowledge of that something, liking or disliking, and the strength of the feelings.
They are lasting, but changeable
They help to direct behavior – e.g. do you recycle cans?
 

What functions do attitudes provide?
Utilitarian -does the clothing fit, is it appropriate, does it provide what we need?
Value-expressive:  clothing says that you are a professional
Ego-expressive: clothing conveys self-image
Knowledge: summarizes the image we are trying to give, a suit from _______  conveys that you are a professional
 

The Variety of Consumer Attitudes
Attitudes toward product – Campbell Soup at hand

Attitudes toward company  - Philip Morris, Kraft

Attitudes toward a retailer – Wal Mart

Attitudes toward product attributes – salt content

Attitudes toward various types of brand associations

Attitudes toward advertising – do you like the ads for the Borgata?
 

Attitudes:  Likes and Dislikes


Beliefs: Cognitive Component of Consumer Attitude

Affect: Emotive Component of Attitude


The Fishbein Model - discussed in class
An Application of the Fishbein Model
 
 

   The Fishbein Model—Changing Affective Responses


Intention: Behavior Component of Consumer Attitude
Affect is not closely linked to actual purchase
Behavioral intention—attitude toward brand purchase
A far better predictor of behavior than either beliefs or affective responses
Behavioral intention models:
Theory of reasoned action
Theory of trying
 

Measurement of Attitudes
How much do you like Oreo cookies?
       Like very much  . . . . . . . . . . .  Dislike very much

How favorable is your attitude toward Oreos?
            Very favorable . . . . . .  . . . Very unfavorable

Oreos are:
            Good . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bad
  Nutritious  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   Not nutritious
Nonfattening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fattening

I like Oreos:
   strongly    agree     neither agree     disagree     strongly
     agree                      nor disagree                   disagree
 

Intentions
Do you intend to buy Oreos?
  SA     A       NAND        D        SD       NA     DK

How likely is it that you would buy Oreos?
            Very likely . . . . . . . . . . . .   Very unlikely

What is the probability that you will buy Oreos?
            0%  10%  20%  . . . . . .  100%
 
 
Theory of Reasoned Action
Behavior is a direct result of intention
Two factors involved in behavioral intention:
Attitude toward the act of purchase
Subjective norm – the feelings of others who may be important to us
 

Subjective Norm


Applying the Theory of Reasoned Action to Change Intentions

Hierarchies of Effects
What is the likely order?
Beliefs, affect, behavior - cognitive
Beliefs, behavior, affect - learning
Affect, behavior, beliefs - hedonic
“Try it, you’ll like it”
 

Multi-attribute models
Assume that all the attributes of products are evaluated
People have beliefs regarding a particular product’s having each attribute
Some attributes are more important than others
Buying running shoes with the proper fit is:
          Necessary   . . . . . .   Unnecessary
How likely is it that New Balance shoes can give you the correct fit?
          Very likely . . . . . . . . Very unlikely
 
 

Ideal point models
Compares your brand versus an ideal held by consumers
Measures the perceptions of the brand’s location along an attribute continuum
Multiplied by an importance level for each attribute
 

If the importance of an attribute is high
And our performance is poor
If the competitor is also poor, we have neglected an opportunity
If the competitor is good,  we are at a competitive disadvantage
And our performance is good
If our competitor is poor, we have competitive advantage
If our competitor is good, we have competition
 

If the importance of an attribute is low
And our performance is poor
If the competitor is also poor, we have a null opportunity
If the competitor is good,  we have a false alarm – it doesn’t matter
And our performance is good
If our competitor is poor, we have a false  advantage – it’s not worth it
If our competitor is good, we have false competition