Consumer Analysis - notes set 5
Motivation, Emotion, and Involvement

Chapter Spotlights
How human needs motivate consumers to buy
What specific motives play a role in marketplace behavior
How marketers can elicit specific emotions to sell products and services
How moods affect consumption patterns
How consumer involvement with products and services changes the effects of marketing information

Consumer Motivation
It is the drive to satisfy needs and wants, both physiological and psychological, through the purchase and use of products and services
Five stages of the motivation process:
Latent need
Want or desire

What motivates a consumer to collect Coca Cola Products?
Behavioral Models of Motivation
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
Motivation as a means of satisfying human needs
Five types of needs:
Physiological: food, water, sleep, exercise, sex
Safety: security, shelter, normalcy in daily life
Love and belonging: affection and acceptance as part of a family or group
Esteem or status: self-respect and the respect of others; the need to feel competent, confident, important, and appreciated
Self-actualization: the need to realize one’s own potential, to achieve dreams and ambitions
Marketing implications

Models (continued)
Dichter’s major consumption motives:
1950 study regarding the consumer needs motivating the purchase of Ivory soap (P&G)
He found a relation between the use of soap  and the need for spiritual purity
12 key motivations lead to product purchase
Models (continued)

Sheth’s consumer motives
Developed as a classification scheme to predict consumer decisions in travel
Five dimensions of motivation:
Functional; aesthetic/emotional; social; situational; curiosity

Consumer Motivation and Marketplace Behavior
Influence on consumer decision making
Influence on consumer conflict resolution
Approach-approach conflict
Approach-avoidance conflict
Avoidance-avoidance conflict
Influence on consumption patterns

Motivational Conflicts
Are you trying to avoid (negative) or achieve (positive) an outcome?
What would be an outcome for a consumer to avoid?
(too many calories, fat content, high price, unclean clothes)
What is an outcome for a consumer to pursue? (good taste)

In Reality, Many Outcomes are in Conflict
eg high calorie food which tastes great!
leads to “need” for low calorie food which tastes great
leading to “fake fat”
Cognitive Dissonance (minimize negatives)

Does the Atkins’ diet help with conflict resolution? Does the low carb craze allow consumers to eat more of some products while losing weight??

Types of Conflict:
Approach-Approach (want several products, rebates)
Approach-Avoidance (good taste, avoid fat = Healthy Choice)
Avoidance-Avoidance (preventative medicine, become sick = over the counter)

Do Marketers Create Brand Needs?
Lexus and Rolex

Do Marketers Create Attributes that aren’t needed?

How about post-it notes?
Post-it notes were developed from an adhesive that didn’t stick permanently
Developed to mark Art Fry’s place in his choir hymnal

Triggering Consumer Motives
Inducing need recognition
Move consumer from actual state to desired state
Triggering motivation through need-benefit segmentation
Understand consumer better and offer him or her goods and services to meet the needs of specific target segments
Triggering subconscious motivation

Emotions are affective responses that reflect the activation within the consumer of beliefs that are deep-seated and value-laden
Beliefs ? emotions

Many emotions are used in advertising:
Anger, fear, humor, compassion
Can you think of any others?
Limitations in use

Emotions (continued)
Experiencing emotions
People purchase products and services to experience certain emotional states or to achieve emotional goals (emotional arousal)
Emotions and consumer satisfaction
Emotions and communication

It is an affective state that is general and pervasive
Moods are much less intense than emotions
Consumers are much less conscious of moods and the effect moods have on marketplace behavior
Consumer moods are induced in three different marketplace settings:
Service encounters
POS stimuli

Effects of Moods
On consumer recall
Mood at encoding and retrieval
On consumer evaluation
Negative mood ? negative evaluation (and vice versa)
On consumer behavior
Positive mood increases giving, encourages consumers to seek variety and their willingness to try new things

Inducing Positive Moods
In service encounters
Transaction mechanics
Service personnel
Physical setting
In marketing communications
Media placement
Message aspects

It refers to a heightened state of awareness that motivates consumers to seek out, attend to, and think about product information prior to purchase
Two types of involvement

Effects of Consumer Involvement
Information search
High involvement ? greater information search (more shopping around)
Information processing
Depth of comprehension
High involvement ? deeper comprehension
Extent of cognitive elaboration
High involvement ? more thinking
Extent of external arousal
High involvement ? greater emotional arousal
Information transmission
High involvement ? more frequent information transmission (talking about products) to others

Causes of Consumer Involvement
Personal factors
Product’s image and needs it serves are congruent with a consumer’s self-mage, values and needs ? high involvement
Product factors
The greater the perceived risk the greater consumer involvement
The more alternatives there are to choose from, the greater the involvement
The higher the hedonic value of goods, the greater the involvement
The more socially visible a product is, the greater the involvement

Causes (continued)
Situational factors
Social pressure can significantly increase involvement
The imminence of the decision heightens involvement
Irrevocable purchase decisions heighten enrollment

Involvement-Based Consumer Behavior Models
Low-involvement learning model
Positioning without attitude change
Learn-feel-do hierarchy
Differentiating consumer choices into information (learn), attitude (feel), and behavior (do)
High involvement/high thinking
High involvement/high feeling
Low involvement/low thinking
Low involvement/low feeling

Models (continued)
Level of message processing model
Consumer attention to advertising is influenced by the following four levels of involvement: pre-attention, focal attention, comprehension, and elaboration
Product versus brand involvement model
Brand loyalists
Information seekers
Routine brand buyers
Brand switchers