Consumer Analysis - notes set  6

What Can Attitudes tell us about Consumers?

What is an Attitude?

The Variety of Consumer Attitudes

Attitudes toward advertising and spokespersons
Do Positive Attitudes translate into purchase and consumption?
Just because consumers prefer brand X, doesn’t mean they will necessarily buy brand X
Having a favorable attitude toward a product is not the same as having a favorable attitude toward its purchase or consumption
Consumers may “think” that eating chicken and fish is good for their health.  Does that mean that they will eat these rather than red meat?

Beliefs: Cognitive Component of Consumer Attitude

Strategies To Change Consumer Beliefs
Positioning by
Product attributes
Consumer benefits
Intangible attributes
Brand user
Celebrity recognition
Brand personality
Product category
Association with competitors
Country or geographic area

Affect: Emotive Component of Attitude

Functional Theory of Attitude - what functions do attitudes do for us?
Affective responses help consumers reach purchase decisions in four ways:

Affective responses to a brand consist of:
The strength or weakness of a consumer’s beliefs about the brand and its attributes
The consumer’s evaluation of or feelings toward those attributes

The Fishbein Model - these will be discussed in class

An Application of the Fishbein Model - look at examples in the text

The Fishbein Model—Changing Affective Responses

Belief-Importance Model

The Belief-Importance Model - discussed in class

Intention: Behavior Component of Consumer Attitude
Affect is not closely linked to actual purchase
Behavioral intention—attitude toward brand purchase
A far better predictor of behavior than either beliefs or affective responses
Behavioral intention models:
Theory of reasoned action
Theory of trying

Measurement of Attitudes - examples of measurement scales
How much do you like Oreo cookies?
       Like very much  . . . . . . . . . . .  Dislike very much

How favorable is your attitude toward Oreos?
            Very favorable . . . . . .  . . . Very unfavorable

Oreos are:
            Good . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bad
  Nutritious  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   Not nutritious
Nonfattening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fattening

I like Oreos:
   strongly    agree     neither agree     disagree     strongly
     agree                      nor disagree                   disagree

Do you intend to buy Oreos?
  SA     A       NAND        D        SD       NA     DK

How likely is it that you would buy Oreos?
            Very likely . . . . . . . . . . . .   Very unlikely

What is the probability that you will buy Oreos?
            0%  10%  20%  . . . . . .  100%

Theory of Reasoned Action
Behavior is a direct result of intention
Two factors involved in behavioral intention:
Attitude toward an act
Subjective norm

Attitude toward the Act

Subjective Norm - do others influence your attitudes?

Applying the Theory of Reasoned Action to Change Intentions
It helps to identify those attributes most important in causing consumers to form positive (or negative) attitudes toward the purchase of a product
Changing attitude toward purchase
It helps to identify and helps to adjust sources of social pressure and their possible role in intention formation
Changing subjective norms

Theory of Trying
The theory of reasoned action cannot be used to predict behavior in situations in which consumption takes place over an extended period of time
The  theory of trying explores consumption behavior rather than buying behavior

Theory of Trying—Application
Intention to try
Frequency of trying
Social norms toward trying
Attitude toward trying
Attitude toward success together with the expectations of success
Attitude toward failure together with expectation of failure
Attitude toward the process
Attitude toward consumption:
Beliefs about consequences
Evaluation of consequences
Frequency of past trying
Recency of past trying

Attitude-Behavior Consistency
It refers to the extent to which attitude leads to purchase
It is influenced by
Consumer factors: access to resources, past experiences with a brand, orientation (action- or state-oriented consumers)
Situational factors: time passed, message repetition, social influence
Measurement factors: specificity, time of measurement