What Can Attitudes tell us about Consumers?
What is an Attitude?
Attitudes toward advertising and spokespersons
Do Positive Attitudes translate into purchase and consumption?
Just because consumers prefer brand X, doesn’t mean they will necessarily buy brand X
Having a favorable attitude toward a product is not the same as having a favorable attitude toward its purchase or consumption
Consumers may “think” that eating chicken and fish is good for their health. Does that mean that they will eat these rather than red meat?
Beliefs: Cognitive Component of Consumer Attitude
Strategies To Change Consumer Beliefs
Association with competitors
Country or geographic area
Affect: Emotive Component of Attitude
Functional Theory of Attitude - what functions do attitudes do for us?
Affective responses help consumers reach purchase decisions in four ways:
The Fishbein Model
The Fishbein Model - these will be discussed in class
An Application of the Fishbein Model - look at examples in the text
The Fishbein Model—Changing Affective Responses
The Belief-Importance Model - discussed in class
Intention: Behavior Component of Consumer Attitude
Affect is not closely linked to actual purchase
Behavioral intention—attitude toward brand purchase
A far better predictor of behavior than either beliefs or affective responses
Behavioral intention models:
Theory of reasoned action
Theory of trying
Measurement of Attitudes - examples of measurement scales
How much do you like Oreo cookies?
Like very much . . . . . . . . . . . Dislike very much
How favorable is your attitude toward Oreos?
Very favorable . . . . . . . . . Very unfavorable
Good . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bad
Nutritious . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Not nutritious
Nonfattening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fattening
I like Oreos:
strongly agree neither agree disagree strongly
agree nor disagree disagree
Do you intend to buy Oreos?
SA A NAND D SD NA DK
How likely is it that you would buy Oreos?
Very likely . . . . . . . . . . . . Very unlikely
What is the probability that you will buy Oreos?
0% 10% 20% . . . . . . 100%
Theory of Reasoned Action
Behavior is a direct result of intention
Two factors involved in behavioral intention:
Attitude toward an act
Attitude toward the Act
Subjective Norm - do others influence your attitudes?
Applying the Theory of Reasoned Action to Change Intentions
It helps to identify those attributes most important in causing consumers to form positive (or negative) attitudes toward the purchase of a product
Changing attitude toward purchase
It helps to identify and helps to adjust sources of social pressure and their possible role in intention formation
Changing subjective norms
Theory of Trying
The theory of reasoned action cannot be used to predict behavior in situations in which consumption takes place over an extended period of time
The theory of trying explores consumption behavior rather than buying behavior
Theory of Trying—Application
Intention to try
Frequency of trying
Social norms toward trying
Attitude toward trying
Attitude toward success together with the expectations of success
Attitude toward failure together with expectation of failure
Attitude toward the process
Attitude toward consumption:
Beliefs about consequences
Evaluation of consequences
Frequency of past trying
Recency of past trying
It refers to the extent to which attitude leads to purchase
It is influenced by
Consumer factors: access to resources, past experiences with a brand, orientation (action- or state-oriented consumers)
Situational factors: time passed, message repetition, social influence
Measurement factors: specificity, time of measurement