Internet Retailing (Retailing on the Web)

Overview:  This section contains manuscripts examining topics related to Internet Retailing.

Ahmed, Samah H.  and Sandra Forsythe, “Introducing a Conceptual Model to Examine the Relationship between Retail Website Environment and Consumers’ Patronage Intentions”, ACRA, Spring 2004, Orlando. A conceptual model is introduced to identify the relationship between website environmental cues from both functional design and aesthetics perspectives, and the relationship between the environmental cues and consumers’ choice criteria for an online website as well as their patronage intentions. The website design reflects the environment through which consumers interact with a retailer to perform a shopping task. Therefore, it is important for online retailers to understand what factors influence consumers’ patronage intentions for a particular retail website. Research propositions were derived and implications of this model to online retailers are presented.

Carpenter, Jason and Marguerite Moore,“Exploring the Role of Consumer Experience in Building Relationship Commitment with the Internet Channel”,ICSC / ACRA Las Vegas   May, 2002.The current study examines knowledge-based prior experience, communicatin and trust for their impact on relationship commitment.

Easterling, Cynthia, Dolly Loyd and Deborah Lester, “Internet Retailing: Apparel Shopping by College Students”,ICSC / ACRA Las Vegas May 2002 .This study focused on college-age consumers' response to apparel shopping on the Internet.  438 students in undergraduate marketing and fashion merchandising courses were asked a series of questions on why the do, or did not, buy apparel on the Internet.

Forsythe, Sandra and Shi, Bo, “A Communication-Based Model of Online Marketing”,ACRA, Spring .The rapid growth of the Internet as a viable medium for commerce has led companies to rethink the marketing process, and in particular the role of communication. A new model is necessary to guide Internet marketing and online marketing strategies. This paper discusses a suggested model which incorporates the interactive nature of the medium by incorporating communication theory.

Goetzinger, Lynn and JungKun Park, “Consumer Trust Dimensions in Online Shopping:
An E-tailing Strategic Approach”, ACRA, Winter 2005, New York. Trust has been studied to determine how it is established and maintained. The present study aimed to determine whether separate external and internal antecedents impacted trusting dimensions differently and whether the various trust dimensions contributed differently to willingness to depend on an e-tailer. Results show that external antecedents to trust may be more important than internal antecedents for building consumer trust and that trust in an e-tailer significantly contributes to a willingness to depend on an e-tailer. Implications include trust-building strategies for e-tailers.

Good, Linda K. and Zee-Sun Yun, “E-Customer Loyalty Intentions Toward the E-Tailer”,ICSC / ACRA Las Vegas May, 2002.This study was conducted to examine the relationship among e-tailer attributes, consumers' attitudes, e-patronage intentions, and e-loyalty toward the e-tailer

Ha, Sejin and Leslie Stoel, “E-shopping Quality, Trust and Consumer Acceptance: Addition to the Technology Acceptance Model”, ACRA, Spring 2005, Philadelphia, PA. In this study, e-shopping quality and trust (safety) were integrated into the technology acceptance model (TAM) to understand consumer acceptance of online shopping. Multiple regressions revealed that consumer’s attitude toward online shopping was influenced by perceived ease of use, usefulness and safety (trust) which, in turn, were influenced by privacy/security and atmospheric/ experiential e-shopping dimension. Consumer’s attitude toward e-shopping was related to intent to use e-shopping for apparel products. Safety (trust) was confirmed to play a significant role in consumers’ adoption of e-shopping. Our findings suggest that consumers should be considered not only as web users but also as shoppers.

Ha, Young  and Sharron J. Lennon, “Rural consumers’ Internet apparel shopping: Innovativeness and beliefs”, ACRA, Spring 2005, Philadelphia. Based on the innovation decision-making process (DMP) described by Rogers’ (1995) diffusion of innovation theory, this study examined the effects of consumer characteristics on beliefs about the Internet and Internet shopping that in turn influence the adoption of Internet apparel shopping among rural consumers. The results of structural equation modeling showed good fit indices and significant model paths. These results underscore the general applicability of the DMP in studying adoption of Internet apparel shopping among rural consumers.  Rural consumers’ social economic status and innovativeness positively influenced beliefs about Internet shopping that in turn affected adoption of Internet apparel shopping in terms of frequency of Internet clothing purchasing.

Kaufman-Scarborough, Carol, “Web design issues for retailers: understanding the fear factor”, ACRA, Winter 2004, New York. The goal of the present study was to empirically examine whether different web attributes appeal to persons who fear online shopping.  Several distinct preferences were found among “fearful” web customers that can potentially be used to build reassurance in converting fearful browsers into actual web shoppers. The fearful shoppers in this sample were older and worked less hours than the rest of the participants, suggesting that there may be an overall correlation with age and employment. Recommendations concerning web site design for fearful shoppers seem to be based on conjecture and common sense, without empirical support. Interestingly, those who fear making purchases on the web do appear to go online with similar frequencies than those who are confident. However, many are less likely to browse web sites than their confident counterparts.

Kim, Hye-Young and Youn-Kyung Kim, “Escapism, Consumer Lock-In, Attitude, and Purchase: An Illustration from an Online Shopping Context”, ACRA, Spring 2005, Philadelphia. This study was undertaken to evaluate a conceptual framework that combines the accumulated hedonic behavior research with the theory of reasoned action. Using structural equation modeling, this study establishes escapism as an important independent variable influencing both consumer lock-in and consumer attitude toward purchasing from a particular online retailer. The findings of this study show that consumer attitude influences actual purchase transactions. Consumer lock-in is also identified as an independent variable exerting a significant effect on consumer attitude. This study contributes to the understanding of consumers’ psychological experiences online as well as predicts their purchasing behavior.

Kim, Minjeong, Jung-Hwan Kim and Sharron J. Lennon, “Online Service Attributes Available on Apparel Retail Websites: A SERVQUAL Approach”, ACRA, Spring 2005, Philadelphia. The purpose of our exploratory study was to identify online service attributes that facilitate online shopping using the five dimensions of SERVQUAL and to evaluate the extent to which online service attributes were available in online apparel retail websites. Results revealed that many online apparel retailers failed to provide services that are important to online shoppers in the searching process or that make the purchase process secure and convenient. In addition, some online retailers need to provide more online service attributes to meet customers’ expectations of services in online retailing. The coding guide developed for this study provides a comprehensive, yet convenient tool to objectively evaluate online service performance. In addition, online retailers may compare their service performance with other online retailers based on the availability of online service attributes.

Kunz, Michelle B. And Carl L. Dyer , “Identifying Store Attributes which Contribute to Online Shopping”,ACRA Spring 1998.The purpose of this research was to analyze store characteristics of the WWW, as gleaned from alternative shopping mediums which included catalog, TV, and the Internet, and determine what influences these variables had on the intent of online users to shop via the Web. Additionally, another objective was to survey current online users, who were using the WWW for additional activities by using an online survey instrument.

Kunz, Michelle B.and Nancy J Miller , ACRA, Spring 1999.This paper describes the implementation of a couple of class projects designed to provide students with insights into retail merchandising and display activities through student collaboration between classes at two universities located in different regions of the United States. Additionally this collaboration provided students with development of telecommunication skills and computer technology skills.

Kwon, Wi-Suk and Sharron J. Lennon, “A Model of Reciprocal Effects of Apparel Multi-Channel Retailers’ Online and Offline Brand Images”, ACRA, Spring 2005, Philadelphia.

Lester, Deborah H., Andrew M. Forman, and Dolly D. Loyd, “Longitudinal Study of Generation Y: Internet Shopping Behavior”, ACRA, Spring 2004, Orlando. This longitudinal study evaluates Generation Y’s online shopping behavior and how it has evolved in a two-year time span. With a buying power that rivals the baby boomers, marketers are scrambling to discover strategies to entice this generation of Net Kids.  This study identifies general directions as well as specific areas that marketers need to consider. Results of this study indicate that Generation Y is eagerly embracing the World Wide Web and has no qualms about making purchases through the Internet.  Young adults have access to computers and the Internet and greater numbers of them are completing purchases on the Web.  Generation Y is making purchases more often and spending greater amounts of money than ever before.

Lim, Heejin, Richard Widdows, and Neal H. Hooker, “Web Content Analysis of E-Grocery Retailers: An Exploratory Study”, ACRA, Winter 2005, New York. The study attempts to investigate the current performance of U.S. E-Grocers and provide effective retailing strategies. Considering the distinct attributes of E-Grocery retailing, the present study calls attention to the need for distinct business strategies for different product categories. The findings indicate that E-Grocers need to improve their communication tools to convince customers of their quality of service and fulfillment abilities. The Internet is an excellent medium to facilitate complex messages. However, E-Grocers are not fully utilizing all of the advantages of this channel as an effective communication tool between retailers and customers.

Miley, Patti K. and Deborah D. Young , “Developing Profiles on Online Shoppers and Purchasers”,ICSC/ACRA Las Vegas May 2002.As the number of viable e-commerce sites continues to increase, and the profitability of these sites becomes more critical, understanding Internet shoppers and purchasers to a greater degree is essential. In order to develop usable profiles, the researchers examined the Internet axxess and purchasing habits of Internet users in combination with their demographic profiles in order to develop a profile of Internet shoppers and purchasers.

Miley, Patti K. and Deborah D. Young, “Investigating the Relationships between Purchasing From Internet Shopping Sites and Perceived Risk among U.S. Consumers”, ACRA, Spring 2004, Orlando. As the number of viable ecommerce sites continues to increase, and the profitability of those sites becomes more critical, it is essential to understand Internet shopping site purchasing and non-purchasing to a greater degree. When considering the factors that deter online buying, perceived risk should be considered. The researchers examined the relationships between purchasing from Internet shopping sites and seven types of perceived risk. Results indicated that non-purchasers demonstrated significantly higher levels of perceived risk on six of the types examined. Findings and directions for future research are discussed.

Park, Minjung, Leslie Stoel and Sharron J. Lennon, “Developing a Conceptual Model to Explain the Effect of Information Quality on Website Quality Perceptions and Customer Satisfaction”, ACRA, Spring 2005, Philadelphia. The purpose of the study is to develop a conceptual model that explains the effect of information quality on perceived website quality, customer satisfaction, and customer patronage intentions. The model proposed in this study postulates that the quality of product and service information on an e-tail website influences customers’ perceptions of website quality which determines customer satisfaction. Website quality also directly affects customer satisfaction, and customer satisfaction subsequently influences patronage intentions.  This model adds to the literature on website quality because it explains how website quality influences satisfaction.

Shim, Soyeon, “Consumer Intention to Shop Through An Electronic Mall: The Fishbein Behavioral Intention Model”,ACRA, Spring 1989.By utilizing the Fishbein Behavioral Intention theoretical framework, this study examined consumers' intention to use an electronic shopping model. First, it was found that attitudinal component and normative belief were similarly important in predicting electronic shopping intention level without motivation to comply. Second, a profile of the potential users of electronic shopping was developed in terms of shopping habits, computer ownership and usage, mail order purchase experience, and demographics.

Shim, Soyeon and Marianne Y. Mahoney, “Electronic Shoppers and Non-Shoppers Among Videotex Users: Shopping Orientations, Videotex Usages and Demographics”,ACRA, Spring 1991.This study investigates differences between electronic shoppers and non-shoppers among videotex users in terms of shopping orientations, videotex usages, and demographics. Data (N=551) were collected via questionnaires sent to 1,000 current subscribers to a major videotex company. By utilizing discriminant analysis, it was found that shopping orientations and videotex usages were overall successful in distinguishing electronic shopping from non-shoppers; however, demographics were relatively unsuccessful. Significant variables included eight factors of shopping orientations (easy use of electronic shopping, high-tech in-home shopper, home shopping phone, low perceived ambiguity, recreational shopper, low perceived high cost, shopping opinion leader, and less convenient/time conscious shopper), and six factors of videotex usages (general information, information exchange, financial information, computer/professional forum, length of videotex usage, and satisfaction with videotex services); and one demographic variable (education).

Wickliffe, Vanessa P. and Leslie Stoel, “A Characterization of Internet Purchase Behavior: Does Product Category Matter?” ,ACRA ICSC/ACRA May 2002 Las Vegas .
The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between product category and factors influencing consumers on-line purchase behavior.

Yu, Hong, Glenn Muske and Eunah Yoh, “The Changing Look of Female Apparel E-Commerce Consumers”, ACRA, Winter 2005, New York. The purposes of this study is to compare today’s female online consumers to the female consumers of 5-years ago using two cross-sectional studies that asked identical questions to see how the market has matured over time and to expand the understanding of what factors influence a consumer’s decision to shop for apparel online. The findings indicated that today’s consumers do have significantly more prior experience with the Internet, more online shopping experience, and more favorable attitudes towards online apparel shopping. The data confirmed the notion that e-commerce consumers are becoming more actively involved in online shopping and buying activities. This suggests attractive potential marketing opportunities for the E-commerce business community.

Yun, Zee-Sun   ACRA Spring , Montreal 2003, “The Impact of Consumers' Risk Perception on Etail” .This study examines how consumers' perceived risks toward etail store versus retail sore and how the risks related to their previous shopping experience with a store can be employed in predicting shopping intentions.