Global Issues in Retailing

This section contains manuscripts examining topics involving global retailing issues

 Barry, Mary E. “Global Retailers - The New Explorers”, ACRA, Spring 1985.A brief  examination of the role and activity of foreign retailers in    entering the American  market place.

Berman, Barry, “The Impact of Foreign Ownership on U.S. Retailing”
Working Paper: Berman .A presentation and documentation of the extent of foreign involvement in American retailing primarily in the food and general merchandise areas. The report substantiates extensive foreign ownership and discusses some of the reasons for this involvement as well as the author's observations about the pattern and implications.

“Canadian Retailing: A Profile as of 1983”
This is an extensive reference note which provides a descriptive profile of the Canadian retailing industry and its consumer marketplace. A valuable tool for understanding Canadian retailing and an example of what might be done to profile a retail market.

Chung, Jae-Eun, Byoungho Jin and Brenda Sternquist, “The Influence of Market Orientation on Channel Relationships: Evidence from a Korean Department Store Context”, ACRA, Spring 2004, Orlando. This study examined the influence of retailer market orientation and retailer perception of supplier market orientation on channel relationships regarding retailer economic dependence, supplier use of coercive influence strategy, and retailer economic and social satisfaction with the supplier. Results indicate that retailer perception of supplier market orientation increased retailer dependence on the supplier and reduced the supplier’s use of coercive influence strategies. Retailer market orientation alleviated supplier use of coercive influence strategies and enhanced retailer satisfaction with the supplier.

Craig, Jane S. and Ann DuPont, “Sourcing in Mexico - Experiences of Textile Apparel Manufacturers”,ACRA, Spring 1989 .This preliminary study indicates substantial use of the maquiladora program by large scale, established U.S. apparel manufacturers in Texas.

Davies, Barry J., “Opportunities in Europe “,ACRA, Winter 1993.A paper focusing on market development as an environmental trend in Europe based on contingent and contextual factors. Opportunities which arise from the new trends are discussed.

Dawson, John, “A Framework for the Consideration of Changes in Retailing in the European Economic Area” ,The paper proposes changes to the retailing framework in the European Economic Area in response to the turbulent and challenging new environment developing. It discusses five dimensions from which the framework should be formed: market variety, industry structure, environmental dynamics, organizational dynamics, and governmental intervention.

De Angelo, Claudio Felisoni, Rodrigo Alexandre Gedra Alvarez, Luiz Paulo Lopes Fávero, and João Paulo Lara de Siqueira, “Social and economic development as a potential explanation of retail growth around the world”, ACRA, Spring 2004, Orlando. The objective of this paper is to resume the main theories on the development that materialized over the course of history, as well as the indices created in modern times to measure the economic and social progress of nations. To this end, the technique of correlation is applied to data on the world’s largest retailers. This will allow us to find out which countries have a similar economic and social situation. It is intended, through this, to understand the development-oriented policies which are capable of providing better short-term results from the standpoint of global retail.

Douglas, S.U and Michelle A Morganosky  .,“Taiwan and U.S. Off Price Apparel Stores: a Comparative Analysis of Retail Institutional Evolution “, ACRA  Winter 1986.An examination of the cross cultural development of off price retailing in two contrasting retail environments based on a survey of retailers in the U.S. and Taiwan. In spite of the small sample of Taiwanese retailers, the paper provides a valuable insight into the development of retail institutional forms in diverse cultures.

 Drtina, Tomáš, “Retailing in Europe: Crossing the Borders”,ACRA, Spring 1999.
This is an explanation of the current state of retailing in Europe. Specifically, this study discusses the trend toward internationalization and globalization of trade and retailing. It looks in detail at the Czech Republic as a case example of this trend in retailing.

Dupuis, Marc, “Business Distance and Global Retailing, A Model of Analysis of Key Success/Failure Factors”.The purpose of this article is to propose a preliminary model of analysis of the retail format internationalization success (the French Hypermarket in Asia)and failure(the French Hypermarket in the U.S.A.) factors due to a business distance between the domestic an d target markets creating a "prism effect" on the original competitive advantages.

“An Exploratory Study of Canadian Cross-Boarder Shopping Motivation”
This article dicusses the decline of Canadian shopping in the Unites States and the increase of U.S. shopping in Canada during the mid-nineteen-nineties. Cross-boarder shopping impacts the development and growth of the local area retail industries. The decline of Canadian shopping at U.S. retailers has resulted in business losses in the U.S. while the Canadian retailers are experiencing an incline in sales.

Fernie, John, Christopher M. Moore and Alexander Lawrie , “A Tale of two Cities: An Examination of Fashion Designer Retailing within London and New York “,ACRA Spring  1998 (Washington, DC) ,This paper examines the growth strategies adopted by fashion design houses to transform and reposition their businesses from relatively small, niche market and privately-owned companies to stock market listed conglomerates and the geographic implications of these strategies.

Fernie, John, “Retail Change in the U.K.: Implications for Logistics and Distribution Management” ,ACRA April, 1996 .Then purpose of the paper is to discuss the factors which have influenced retail change in the UK and the impact of these changes on the logistical support to shops. It gives an overview of the main changes in the UK retail environment to date, the logistical responses to these changes and the possible impact of future changes upon logistical strategies of both retailers and manufacturers

 Freathy, Paul and  Frank O’Connell, “Commercial Activities and the European Airport Sector: Current Issues and Future Threats”,ACRA, Spring 1999.Changes in the infrastructure of the European air transport industry, airline liberalization, and legislative provision have led to an increase in private sector airport management and a greater emphasis upon commercial activities. The role of these commercial activities and the issues that influence their future strategic direction are discussed in this paper.

Frazier, Barbara and Dawn Thorndike Pysarchik , “Effects of Country of Manufacture Cues on Product Evaluation, Attitudes Toward Purchase and Intention to Buy in Bi-National Settings”,ACRA Spring  1998 (Washington, DC).The purpose of this research is to assess the impact of bi-national brand and country of manufacture cues on consumer product evaluations, attitude toward purchase and intention to buy.

Gehrt, Kenneth C and Soyeon Shim , “The Role of Fruit in the Japanese Gift Market: Situationally Defined Competitive Market Structure”,ACRA Spring  1998 (Washington, DC) .This research demonstrates the importance of situational influence on Japanese fruit consumption by delineating a situationally defined competitive market structure for a broadly defined array of gifts including fruit.

Good, Linda, “Market Orientation: How do U.S. and Russian Retailers Differ “,  ACRA Spring , Montreal 2003.The purpose of this study is to examine whether organizational characteristics of American and Russian retail firms affects their market orientation and business performance.  This knowledge will help corporate executives assess the relationship between firm characteristics and marketing orientation and whether this relationship helps or hinders the company's success.

Grassi, Mercia, “Hong Kong & the Chinese vs. the United States & the Americans” ,ACRA, Spring 1984.A general report on the nature of Hong Kong and its role as a supplier to American retailers. The report is based on research and interviews conducted in June 1983 as part of Drexel's International Marketing Seminar to Hong Kong. An excellent, brief introduction to a physically small, but economically significant, foreign trade partner

Hernandez, Tony , “Retail GIS: An International Perspective”,ACRA Spring 2000, Toronto, Canada.This paper reports findings from ongoing international research into the development of GIS within retail organizations. Survey based evidence is reported, which provides the context for retail GIS research. Qualitative findings from a series of interviews with retail GIS users in Canada, the UK and the Netherlands are presented, which provides insight into retailers’ actual use of GIS. The paper raises a number of issues concerning the process of GIS diffusion and the integration of geographical technologies within decision-making activities.

Huddelston, Patricia, Good Linda K. and Eun-Jung Choi , “Factors Which Influence Market Orientation and Performance: A Comparison of Polish and US Retail Firms”
ICSC / ACRA Las Vegas May, 2002.The study examined level of marketing orientation of US and Polish retail firms and performance relationships.

Import Buying
Four scenarios which give the students an opportunity to practice the roles of Divisional Merchandise Manager, Buyer, and Assistant Buyer in a fictitious dealing with Eastern Asian manufacturers. It requires that the students market research on the country and manufacturer, determine buying decision and negotiating Procedures and Policies.

Hernandez, Tony  and Jim Simmons, “Power Retailing: A Canadian Perspective”, ACRA, Winter 2005, New York. This paper provides an overview of power retailing in Canada, and fundamentally addresses questions relating to: (i) where development has taken place; and (ii) where development is likely to take place in the future. The paper is divided into three sections. The first section provides analysis of power retail development at the national level, providing some basic benchmarks. The second section looks in-depth at provincial, regional and urban area variations in power retailing. The final section of the paper focuses on developing measures of saturation and provides a number of simple models to assess existing levels of saturation and potential for further development. The findings highlight the regions, and by implication major markets, that are likely to see continued development of big box stores. These are the areas that both Canadian and US-based big box chains are likely to target for future expansion.

Jin, Byoungho  and Jiyoung Kim, “Profiles of Korean Multi-channel versus Pure Online Shoppers”, ACRA, Winter 2005, New York. This study attempts to provide the profiles of Korean multi-channel shoppers versus pure online shoppers by comparing the two segments in terms of evaluative responses on website attributes, the level of satisfaction, trust and loyalty, demographic variables, and Internet shopping behavior. Analyses on the data set total of 463 collected responses using a mall intercept method and online survey in Seoul, Korea revealed that multi-channel shoppers evaluated the “Promotion” aspect significantly higher than pure online shoppers while pure online shoppers rated “Merchandise” more favorably than their counterparts. Pure online shoppers had a higher level of e-loyalty than multi-channel shoppers and tended to be single. The profiles of the two groups and the implications were suggested based on the findings.

Kacker, Madhav, “Foreign Acquisitions of U.S. Retail Firms: Impact at Micro and Macro Levels” ,ACRA, Spring 1989.The paper makes an attempt to examine the impact of a foreign acquisition on the business performance of retail firms in the post-acquisition period and see if such performance could be attributed to the change in ownership. The paper concludes with an assessment of the impact of foreign acquisitions on the U.S. retail industry and the economy in general.

Kaupan Keskusvaliokunta, Kasarmikatu , “Retail and Wholesale Trade in Finland”,ACRA, Spring 1989.A brochure describing the nature and structure of retail and wholesale trade in Finland. Lists the main retailers and trade associations in Finland.

Lavin, Marilyn, “Urban Grocery Initiatives: A Comparison Between London and New York City”, ACRA, Spring 1999.The paper examines a number of grocery initiatives that occurred in London and New York during the 1990s. It considers formats that have been designed specifically for urban locations, as well as more traditional types of food outlets that have been transferred from suburbia to the city. The findings indicate that chains in both locations have been profitable, but circumstances unique to each city have contributed to the types of stores established.

Lee, Yoon-Jung, Cynthia Jasper,Eun-Young Rhee, “Perceived Benefits and Risks of Shopping for Apparel by Catalog: A Korean Example”,ACRA.This study examines whether there are distinctive types of benefits and risks consumers perceive when they purchase apparel from catalogs and which of these influence consumers’ intention to purchase from the catalog. The paper focuses on the growing popularity of in-home catalog shopping in South Korea.

Lee, Yoon-Jung , “Categorization of Korean American Consumers” ,ACRA Spring , Montreal, 2003 .The purpose of this study is to examine Korean-American ethnic identity and acculturation patterns and how they influence fashion behavior.  The focus was given on categorizing Korean Americans based on their acculturation patterns in order to identify the diversity within the ethnic group and understand Korean American fashion and shopping behavior. The study indicated that there is heterogeneity within a single ethnic group, i.e. Korean Americans.

Loker, Suzanne, “Apparel Sourcing Opportunities in Hungary and the Czech Republic: Case Studies in Progress”,ACRA, Winter 1993 .Using the case study method, apparel sourcing opportunities for U.S. retailers in Hungary and the Czech Republic were evaluated. Sourcing and production opportunities were outlined and presented along with the challenges of long-term commitment to the area, language and cultural barriers, lack of advanced technology, design and marketing expertise needs, and evolving firm structures.

Mariotz, Elizabeth and Shahid Siddiqi, “The Internationalization of the Apparel Retail Industry: The Import Dimension” ,ACRA, Spring 1984 .An attempt to identify and analyze the factors affecting the trend toward the increase in imported products in apparel retailing. Comparisons are made between the firms that are heavy importers versus light or non importers. Four major categories of retailers were surveyed.

Martinez, Norberto Muniz, “The Internationalization of European Retailers in America the U.S. Instance” ,Working Paper: Martinez-Muniz .In this paper an empirical analysis was undertaken of the moves of the leading 200 European retail distributors to internationalize America (with emphasis on the United States). It studies the most appropriate strategies for different formats of corporation as well as reasons why leading businesses seek to establish themselves in areas which are more unfamiliar to them than any other European states.

McGurr, Paul T, “Change at the Top: Global Retailing in the Twenty-first Century”, ACRA, Spring 2005, Philadelphia. This paper compares the top 100 global companies as reported in 1999 and 2004 in the trade publication Chain Store Age. There has been change at the top of the retail industry in the first five years of the twenty-first century as 28 of the 100 retailers listed in 1999 have dropped off the list in 2004. Causes of the changes have been addressed identifying mergers, bankruptcies and other changes. The winners and losers in terms of sales growth have been identified.

Morganosky, Michelle A., “Linkages Between Import Status, Store Type, and Brand Type: Influences on Perceptions of Quality “,ACRA, January 1987 .This paper proposes that a brand or store association with imported or U.S. made apparel may increase or decrease the perception of apparel quality. It further discusses the implications for advertisers, manufacturers, and retailers.

Morganosky, Michelle, “The Rural Consumer: Attitudes Toward Imports and Prices” ,ACRA, Spring 1988.A national probability sample of rural and non-rural consumers is compared in relationship to their attitudes toward imports and prices.

Patton, Charles R., Barry, Mary, “Bolivia and Brazil - Hours Away But Worlds Apart” ,ACRA, Spring 1990 .A compilation of systematic observations made by retailing professors in their visits to the South American neighboring countries of Brazil and Bolivia. The dominant forms of retailing institutions are discussed for both countries. An effort is made to partially account for the almost total dissimilarity between the two countries, so close together in space, but so far away in time.

Pysarchik, Dawn Thorndike, Bhargara Vivek, Rener Arvra , “The Changing Consumer Product Distribution System in India”,ACRA, Spring 1993 .Through the use of Porter’s Five Forces model and value chain, this paper describes India’s distribution channels and the effects of moving from a sellers’ to a buyers’ market has on the systems. It then presents opportunities based upon the analysis.

Central Board of Finnish Wholesale and Retail Associations , “Statistics on Retail and Wholesale Trade in Finland” ,ACRA A brief recap of retail and wholesale statistics for Finland 1979 and 1980. Includes types of retail establishments, total sales, number of units, and other information.

Sternquist, Brenda and Rod C. Runyan, ; Tomoyoshi Ogawa, “Retailer Buyer Dependence, the Use of Coercion and Reciprocal Actions in the Japanese Distribution System”,ACRA, Spring 1993 .This paper examines the relationship between supplier and retail buyer, classifying the retailers as either dependent or non-dependent on the supplier. The differences between these two categories are demonstrated by profit contribution, role performance, coercive strategies used by suppliers, and reciprocal actions.

Sternquist, Brenda, Zhengyi Chen, and Ying Huang, “China Buyer-Supplier Relationships: Does State Ownership Matter?” ACRA, Winter 2004, New York. This report provides an important introductory summary of buyer-supplier relationships in China. There are three topics in this paper. First, this study seeks to identify how the buying system works in China’s new system.  Second, to provide a basis of comparison we provide contrasting data for three types of retail ownership, state-owned enterprises (SOE), privatized former state-owned enterprises (PSOE) and foreign joint ventures and organic enterprises (FJV/Org). Finally, key constructs that describe buyer-seller relationships are discussed according to the ownership type. Descriptive statistics provide rich information for future investigation; however results show few significant differences among the three types of ownership.

Sullivan, Pauline,  Lavoie, Dina, “Metropolitan Montrealers’ Cross-Border Shopping Practices” ,ACRA, Winter 1995 .An examination of why Canadians shop in the United States (cross-border shopping) in terms of patronage attributes, taxation and economic impact.

Swinyard, William,. Struman Kenneth D , “Segmentation and Retail Markets: Promises and Prospects for Two Methods” ,ACRA, Spring 1986 .A discussion of management driven vs. market driven approaches to market segmentation. The use of market driven segmentation is illustrated by examples for the restaurant industry, but is applicable to most retail marketing situations.

Wachter, Kathy, Carl Dyer, “An Initial Look: Assessing Potential for Retail Sports Franchise Investment in East Germany”,ACRA, April 1994 .This paper examines factors that encourage and discourage retail investment in retail sports franchises in Germany. Dimensions discussed include currency, taxes, profit, EC demographics, values and lifestyles, and licensing, with particular emphasis on women in Brandenburg, Germany.

Wickliffe, Vanessa and Dawn Thorndike Pysarchik “Decision making Styles Among Korean and  American Consumer Groups”,ACRA Spring 2000 , Toronto, Canada (May 2000).This study compared the decision making styles of Korean and American consumers using a self-report survey questionnaire developed by Sproles and Kendall (1986) and revised by Hafstrom, Chae, and Chung (1992). An examination of psychometric properties of the instrument used revealed that it is somewhat reliable in both cultures. When compared to previous studies, variations are found in the constructs.

Widdows, Richard, Richard Feinberg, Ainars Roze, Riga, Larvia, USSR. “Retail Location: Are We Ahead of the Soviets?”,ACRA, January 1987 .A comparison of the retail location decision in the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. The paper describes the way the U.S.S.R. integrates this decision with it's general plans for socioeconomic development. This is contrasted to the U.S.'s decision, which is made in the private sector.