Educational Issues in Retailing

Overview:  This section contains manuscripts examining educational issues involved in retailing and training in retailing.

Altman, Gene, “An Analysis of Transfer Credits Accepted and Length of Time Taken to Complete Bachelor's Degrees by Selected Transfer Business Management Students,” ACRA, Winter 1982.  A study that attempts to clarify the difficulties and facilitate the transfer process of business students from two year community college programs to the upper division of four year business management programs.

Altman, Gene, “International Council of Shopping Centers: A Report on the Management I Course,” ACRA, April 1983. Paper has described the fundamental course (Mgmt. I) offered by ICSC ,discussed the relationship between retailers and mall developers, effects on the economy of mall development and management, causes of conflict between retail and mall management, and incorporating material on shopping centers into retail courses.

Anderson, Carol,” Why Students Pursue a Retailing Career: Decision Criteria and Influences”, ACRA, Spring 1989 .A survey of retailing students regarding career choice reasons and influences resulted in five career choice factors (Challenge, Creativity, Reward, Security, Personal Relations) and three influence factors (Academic, Professional, Personal). Results indicate job choice is driven by perceived importance and challenge, and that the eight factors significantly predict perceived prestige.

Anderson, Lenda Jo and Evelyn L Brannon “Education-Industry Linkages for Market Research “ACRA, Spring 1989 .This paper discusses successful linkages between retailing, manufacturing and an academic environment to develop a methodology for consumer style preference testing of apparel products prior to market entry. Discussion focuses on the time line for research, the quantitative phase, qualitative phase, the report to the research sponsor and future directions.

Barry, Mary E. and Carol L Warfield “Role of Product Development in Retail Education “ACRA, Spring 1989.Product development requires new skills of our graduates. Firms like Liz Claiborne, whose strength is in procurement, design and marketing, are retailers most profitable resource. Product development provides store differentiation through product differentiation. All aspects of the textile apparel retail pipeline become the playing arena for the product development specialist.

Burns, David J. and Dan Gajos, “Service Learning as a New Pedagogy in the Retail Classroom”, ACRA, Spring 2005, Philadelphia. Service learning has a long history, however, significant confusion exists over the answer to the question “What is service learning?” Service learning is a pedagogy that appears to be able to play a significant role in the education of retail students and in their preparation for a career in retailing. Although little known research has examined the use of service learning in the retailing classroom, the applicability of service learning to the retail environment seems obvious Service learning appears to be able to significantly add to the effectiveness of retail education.  It appears to have the potential to reinforce classroom learning, build skills in knowledge application, further develop teamwork abilities, and increase awareness of community issues.  Many of these issues are the very skills sought by retail employers.

Harp, Shelly S,Sally Fortenberry and Shirley M Stretch  “Visual Merchandising Floor Presentation Guide”ACRA, Spring 1988 .The authors discuss the development of a series of teaching modules to be used in visual merchandising.

Harp, Shelley S and Shirley M Stretch  “Today's Merchandising Students: Who They Are and What They Want to Do “A study taken during the spring of 1984 of junior and senior merchandising majors to determine how they perceive themselves in relation to managerial skills and personality traits deemed necessary to assume future administrative positions and employment goals.

Harp, Shelley S and Shirley M Stretch, “Internship: An Experiential Learning Challenge”.Experiential learning has become popular in many disciplines. The presence of this teaching technique offers significant opportunity for retail educators. This paper examines internship in the realm of experiential learning. Authors outline a structurally controlled experience in which the written component merges theory and practice.

Harp, Shelley W. and Shirley M Stretch. “Today's Merchandising Students: Who Are They and What They Want to Do “ACRA, Spring 1985
The BEM Sex Role Inventory was administered to 432 retail merchandising students from 18 colleges and universities in the state of Texas. The general demographic profile is reported along with the students' preferred power usage patterns.

Harp, Shelly S, Deborah D Young, Deborah C Fowler and Shirley M Stretch,“Undergraduate Retail Research: The Poster Format Alternative”ACRA, Spring 1991.This article discusses the overall undergraduate curriculum in a discipline that should provide experiences which foster creative behavior and divergent thinking. Research ability has been linked to creativity and critical thinking skills (Strauss, 1966). Additionally, conducting research is essential for the further development of a discipline (Fulton and Trow, 1974). Hence, preparing undergraduate students to engage in research should be one of the primary responsibilities of educators in university setting.

Harris, Albert J, Ann Babic and Grey Peter, “Methods for Involving Students in Retail Research: A Study of Older Shoppers ,ACRA, Winter 1986.A description of the use of students in a cooperative research effort with a local department store.Contains instructions sheet, questionnaire, results and student reactions papers. Emphasis is on the student project aspect, not the actual findings.

Brickley, George, “Use of a Company Problems as an Aid to Teaching Retailing” ACRA 1982 .An example of a student research report on a store segmentation study. Includes conclusions of student report, questionnaire, and sample findings.

Burdaiski, Doreen , “Retailing and Private Label Apparel: Preparing Students”.  ACRA Spring 2003, Montreal .This study identifies the executive position responsible for coordinating the development, execution and delivery of private label product for the retailer.  It also defines the various responsibilities of that executive

Davis, Diane, “Visual Merchandising Education Research”,ACRA, Winter 1988
A survey of 25 individuals holding a variety of positions in department store, specialty store, and display specialty firms. The study identifies skills and abilities needed for effective visual merchandising in retailing. The backgrounds of professionals in the field and the activities involved in their jobs are examined.

Dickinson, Roger, Anthony Herbst and John O'Shaughnessy “Gordon Howell Revisited: Academic Business Research and the MBA”, ACRA, Winter 1983.A discussion of the future directions of academic business research. Specifically deals with the questions of how an institution can develop a quality MBA program, what the current defects in these programs are (with an emphasis in finance, management, and marketing), and how changes in the area of academic business research can remedy these defects.

Donnellan, John, “Educational Requirements for Management-Level Positions in Shopping Centers” ,ACRA Spring 1998 (Washington, DC).This is a study of the educational preparation and functional competencies required for shopping-center management careers. The results are based on a survey of major shopping-center practitioners, and college educators with programs intended to prepare students for retailing careers.

DuPont Ann, “Retail Internship Program: Building a Strong Infrastructure”,ACRA.The purpose of this study is to take a longitudinal look at an internship program that has been developed, implemented, and reviewed in a twelve year period as a critical portion of a four year university program.

Everett, Judith, Greenwood, Kathryn Dr., Joy, Kay and Swanson, Kris , “Teaching Retailing to the Non-Traditional Student: Instructing the Artisan/Entrepreneur through Seminar Approach”,ACRA, April 1992, Dallas .This panel discussion proposal reviews the successful "pilot program" which brought together non-traditional students and traditional university students with educators and business professionals in a seminar emphasizing basic retailing concepts. A one day seminar for artisan/entrepreneurs included discussions of pertinent issues to artists without a background in business principles or sales.

Gable, Myron and Mary Boesen, “The Teaching of Retailing: A Preliminary Investigation”, ACRA,Winter 1983 .The results of a survey of ACRA members eliciting certain opinions concerning initial courses in the field of retailing - the desirable background for such courses, prerequisite course requirements, appropriate evaluative projects, usefulness and degree of student awareness of marketing concepts, and the instructional modes utilized in such courses.

Gifford, Jack, “The Lecture Process”,ACRA, Spring 1982 .A complete guide to the effective use of the lecture process as a teaching method. Contains a rationale for the lecture method, and evaluation of its strengths and weaknesses, and a clear guide to preparing and delivering better lectures in a classroom setting.

Gifford, Jack, “Teaching Assessment: Is the Teaching Portfolio a Viable Answer?, ACRA, April 1992, Dallas .This workshop discussion content would be current governmental and institutional pressure for teaching assessment in four year colleges and universities. What is a Teaching Portfolio? The Teaching Portfolio is a diagnostic vs. evaluative tool. The relationship between the preparation of Teaching Portfolios and successful bids for promotion and tenure. What is included in a major Teaching Portfolio?

Gifford, Jack,“Innovations in Classroom Technology: Using Blackboard” ,ACRA Spring 2000 ,Toronto, Canada (May 2000).This is a comprehensive study of Blackboard Technologies involving in depth coverage of the applications available and how they are to be used. Included in this study are example pages, explanations and illustrations.

Hopper, Joanne, Joseph H. Miller and Joseph H. Morris, “Retail Merchandising Internship Programs: Benefits, Problems, and Viable Options for Implementation in Marketing Curriculum”.This paper presents several options of integrating and administering retail internship programs within a marketing department for both small and large universities and also the benefits from integrating internships into the curriculum.

Jernigan,Marian H and Cynthia R. Easterling, “A Survey of Internship/Work Experiences in Retailing Fashion Marketing/-Merchandising Programs”,ACRA, Spring 1986.A study based on 222 responding business and home economic programs in the fashion retailing, marketing areas. Home economics programs were much more likely to require a work experience course, but less likely to require class meetings in the course. Discriminant analysis was used to determine the key differences between business and home econ based programs.

Kunz, Michelle B and Nancy J Miller, “Internet Classroom Assistant: A Tool for Collaborative Teaching Between Universities”,ACRA, Spring 1999.This paper describes the implementation of a couple of class projects designed to provide students with insights into retail merchandising and display activities through student collaboration between classes at two universities located in different regions of the United States. Additionally this collaboration provided students with development of telecommunication skills and computer technology skills.

Kinnaird, Jerry , “Liberal Arts: An Essential Component of Retail Education”,ACRA,
Winter 1987.A paper proposing that Liberal Arts coursework be required for Marketing majors. It suggests that there are many benefits to a well rounded education, typical of liberal arts programs.

Kunz, Michelle B, “Using a Real Client for Class Required Project” .The objective of this project was to revise an existing in-class project designed by the instructor to accommodate the needs of a local business, the Kentucky Folk Art Center (FAC). The FAC staff wanted to provide students a learning opportunity, and to gather innovative and creative ideas regarding the merchandise display and inventory stocking for their new facility.

Mariotz, Elizabeth, “An Assessment of Selected Cooperative Education Activities in Retail Management Programs in Four Year Colleges”,ACRA, Winter 1983.A study which attempts to determine the degree of relevance a cooperative education program has to a prospective employer in the retailing industry considering four year degree candidates for positions in mid-management.

McGinnis, John M, “Teaching Retailing with "Real World" Spreadsheet Application Projects”, ACRA Spring1998 (Washington, DC).This paper examines the literature relating to the personal traits and skills needed by future retailing executives in order to gain a better understanding of the computer expectations the industry has of retailing graduates. In addition, the challenges of integrating computer activities into the retailing classroom are discussed.

Moore, Christopher M., “Retail Management Education: A Technological Void”
This paper examines undergraduate retail management degree programs within the UK from the perspective of the nature and characteristics of Information Technology teaching within these courses. While effective management of information has been recognized as being pivotal to the generation of strategic advantage within retailing this research suggests that there is a large difference between the expectations held by retailers of graduate IT capability and the actual level of the graduate's IT.

Paulins, V. Ann, “Characteristics of Retailing Internships that Student Perceive to Contribute Positively Toward Satisfaction and Career Development”, ACRA, Winter 2004, New York. This study was undertaken in an effort to learn more about characteristics that contribute to students’ satisfaction with their internships.  The Internship Satisfaction Survey was developed to explore characteristics that students perceive to contribute positively toward satisfaction and career development. Three internship site categories were identified: stores, corporate settings, and other types.  Significant differences between site types and ratings of job satisfaction characteristics were observed. Overall, all internship types were associated with relatively high levels of agreement that students were satisfied that their internships contributed positively toward their careers.  Because this was not statistically significantly different, it is evident that satisfying internships can be found at a variety of sites.

Pearson, Michael M., “The Potential of a Computerized Spreadsheet Store Location Model as a Retail Teaching Tool “, ACRA, Spring 1985 .This paper traces the development of a store location model using a computerized spreadsheet (VISICALC). The original purpose of the model was to explain and predict individual store volume. However, it shows better potential as a teaching tool.

Pearson, Michael M, “The Potential of a Computerized Spreadsheet Store Location Model as a Retail Teaching Tool”,ACRA, Spring 1985 .This paper traces the development of a store location model using a computerized spreadsheet (VISICALC). The specific purpose of the model was to explain and predict individual store volume within a trade area. Once developed, the model showed great potential as a teaching tool for store location and trade area topics within retailing.

Pearson, Michael M., “Teaching Retailing with Exercises” , ACRA, Spring 1982 .A brief outline covering the use of short experiential exercises in the basic retailing course. The materials included several actual exercises used at Bowling Green including a store layout problem, an administrative in-basket, and some blank mind teasers for the students to work out in class as a basis for discussion.

Pearson,  Michael M and  Glenn T. Stoops, “The Evolution of a Retail Store Layout Model” ,ACRA, Spring 1991 .This paper presents three versions of a retail teaching exercise - a store layout model. This model has evolved over the years from a relatively simple student handout to an interactive, computerized Lotus 1-2-3 model. This paper presents three versions of this exercise and discusses teaching objectives, subject objectives and student reaction to each.

Robeck, Jacquelene, “Internships: Are They an Asset in Retail Management?”  ,ACRA .A study of the importance of college internships and their usefulness to students in regards to career satisfaction. A survey of 232 marketing major graduates from a small private college.

Stoops, Glenn T., “The Investigation of Retailing Mix Variables as a Retailing Class Project”,ACRA, Spring 1985 .A student project to measure and evaluate the retail mix of two different types of retail stores. Respondents rated the stores on a five point scale and distinguished between their first choice and not first choice store. The unit is well defined and could be implemented in any retail course.

Strickler, Susan ,“What Relationships are Found Between Experiential Learning “,ACRA Spring , Montreal 2003.The purpose of the study was to gather information from past practicum students about their practicum and post-graduate job experiences and to understand the significance of the practicum experience and the factors that affect future employment.

Strickler, Susan C., “Portrait of Experiential Learning Programs”, ACRA, Spring 2004, Orlando. The purpose of the study was to gather information from faculty members who currently supervise experiential learning for their programs. The study would provide an understanding of what the experiential learning experiences entailed and how they differed from one another. The survey research gathered data from 87 institutions in 36 states.  The descriptive statistics analyzed provides a portrait of the experiential learning programs in apparel merchandising, retailing, and related majors.

Topol, Martin, “A Teaching Module for Value-Oriented Retailing”,ACRA Spring , Montreal 2003 .The purpose of this paper is to present a description and brief history of value-oriented retailers during the last fifty years of the 20th century from the rise of discount stores in the 1950's through the emergence of temporary retail stores in the latter part of the 1990's.  This presentation extends the coverage of value-oriented retailing found in texts used in the introductory retailing course.

Wellan, Dee, “Improving Students' Job Search Techniques”,ACRA, Spring 1984 .An explanation and evaluation of using video tapes of simulated interviews of retailing students to allow the students to see how they look to others in the interview situation. The students' self evaluation based on the video tape was usually lower than the peer evaluation, but higher than that of the actual "interviewers."