Consumers in Retail

Overview:  This section contains manuscripts examining topics such as consumer ethnicity, decision making, segmentation, complaint behavior, and compulsive shopping.  Examinations of specific consumer groups, such as children and the elderly, are also included.

Barry, Mary E., “Serving the Hispanic Consumer,” Auburn University, Auburn, AL ACRA, Spring 1990. A study of the very lucrative potential Hispanic market. A few innovative retailers are successfully addressing the market, but it is still largely untapped. For those retailers who can identify the Hispanic consumer's needs and provide the goods and services to meet those needs and wants with perceived value, the future is bright indeed.

Buccine, Robyn , Marianne C. Bickle, Carole J. Makela, and Dawn Mallette, “Retail Channel Choice Behavior: Examination of Consumers’ Uniqueness”, ACRA, Spring 2005, Philadelphia, PA. The purposes of this study were to investigate consumers’ search and patronage behavior of home décor retail channels (i.e., brick-and-mortar stores, catalogs, and websites) and to correlate consumers’ level of uniqueness with choice behavior. This study explored uniqueness as a motivator for retail channel patronage. Reasons consumers’ crossed channels among brick-and-mortar stores, catalogs, and websites due to preference or necessity were addressed. This study revealed that when uniqueness was introduced as a motivation for choice behavior, value did not have a strong correlation with website usage. This study also identified that product design was a predictor of choice behavior. However, relationships among channels and product features were significant.

Burgess, Brigitte W. And Mary Frances Drake, “The Antecedents and Consequences of Customer Satisfaction Using Actual Garments and Actual Purchase Situations,”  ACRA, Spring 1994. This study looks at a model of antecedents and consequences of satisfaction. It examines how expectations, satisfaction, post-purchase attitudes and post-purchase intentions are related. The survey involves insulated gloves and jackets.

Burns, David J., “The Consumer Culture: Implications for Retail Strategy,”  The consumer culture of Western society is based on materialism and the acquisition of goods. The role of retailers includes not only aiding in this acquisitional pursuit, but also fulfilling social needs and even personal self construction. This paper explores the relationship between retailing and the consumer culture from an historical perspective, examining issues of non-market need pairing and self construction and developing conclusions pertaining to retail strategy.

Burns, David J., Lanasa, John M. and Lackman, Conway, “Children as Consumers: Implications for the Retail Offering,” ACRA 1995. The role of children (4-12) in consumer activities had undergone a significant change over the past several decades. Children are increasingly involved in the consumer activities of their households. The approaches available to retailers to address the role children play in such activities are discussed and evaluated.

Burns, David J.,  “Consumers' decision-making style: Relationships with attitude toward consumer free-riding activity,” ICSC / ACRA Las Vegas Conference   May, 2002. This study examines the relationship between consumer decision-making and attitudes toward consumer free-riding. Differences are observed.

Burns, David J., “Materialism as a manifestation of hostility: Implications for Retailers,” ICSC / ACRA Las Vegas Conference  May, 2002. Examines the correlation between hostility and materialism.

Burns, David, “Materialism: The Role of Locus of Control,” ACRA Spring Conference Montreal 2003. The focus of the study is to reexamine the relationship between locus of control and one’s adherence to the value of materialism using an improved scale to measure locus of control B Levenson’s (1974) revised scale which recognized three factors B internal, powerful others, and chance.

Burns, David J., “Relative Influence of Husbands and Wives Upon the Adoption of New Products.” This study discusses the purchasing behavior of husbands and wives and those characteristics needed to try a new product. They determine which partner has the dominant influence and why. The study's sample is taken from a suburb of Cleveland.

Burns, David J., “Excuses: A Potential Result of an Unsatisfactory Shopping Experience,” ACRA Spring Conference, 1992 Dallas. This paper will explore one type of common response to a suboptimal purchase situation which cannot be 'undone'--where the decision maker attempts to separate himself/herself from the decision via excuse-making. This investigation will begin by establishing the rationale or "need" for making excuses. It will further explore the role of excuses in purchasing behavior. Finally, it will identify several of the basic "types" of excuses.

Burns, David J.  and Lewis Neisner, “The Contribution of Emotion to Customer Satisfaction in a Retail Setting”, ACRA, Spring 2004, Orlando. The objective of this study is to extend the analysis of the relative contributions of emotion and cognition in determining customer satisfaction in a retail setting.  The findings suggest that emotions may play a lesser role in the level of satisfaction experienced by consumers in a retail setting than in a service setting.  When the factors of emotion were examined, additional insight is gained.  The emotions of anger/delight and shame were observed to be significant only when expectations are high and performance is low suggesting that these emotions may be able to add to explaining satisfaction in a retail setting, but only for consumers who hold high but unmet expectations of the performance by the retailer.

Burns, David J., “Marketplace Interaction Styles and Attitudes toward Consumer Activities:  The Relationship between Assertiveness and Aggressiveness and Attitudes toward Consumer Free-Riding”, ACRA, Spring 2005, Philadelphia. Consumers’ attitudes toward consumer free-riding activity can logically be affected by their marketplace interaction styles. Two such interaction styles are assertiveness and aggressiveness. Both of these marketplace interaction styles can logically be expected to directly affect individuals’ attitudes toward consumer free-riding activity. Assertive and aggressive individuals were observed to be more likely to possess positive attitudes toward consumer free-riding than were unassertive and non-aggressive individuals. The results suggest that a preferable option to deal with consumer free-riders may be to improve sales assistance, specifically to ensure that salespersons ask for the sale.

Castellani, Gabriella, Choi, Soonhwa, Wang, bin, and Schrank, Holly L., “An Exploratory Study on College Students’ Outshopping Behavior,”  ACRA, Spring 1999. Consumers’ outshopping refers to purchases made outside their local communities. Local outshopping behavior is critical to economic well-being of the community, the employment rate, tax revenue, and community visibility and pride. This study investigates college students as a unique group of consumers. The paper studies college students’ outshopping behavior, characteristics of student outshoppers, and factors influencing their outshopping propensity.

Cavender, Dorothy H. “Merchandising to the Hispanic Consumer: The Catalog Approach,” ACRA, Spring 1990. A report of the 21 million Hispanic consumers that provide a golden opportunity for catalogers who are looking for new market riches.

Cosco, Laura, “Outshopping: A Retail Dilemma for a Mid-Western Community,” ACRA, April 1992, Dallas. This study was conducted to determine the degree of outshopping in a mid-western community. Once the propensity for outshopping was established, the specific categories of goods sought were explored. The literature suggests that, demographically, outshoppers are younger, well educated and have a relatively high income. This study supports this premise but also found evidence of a broader group of outshoppers. Implications for strategic retail planning are discussed.

Crane, Tara C., “An Investigation of Fashion Oriented Consumers and Their Use of Brand name and Store Type When Forming Perceptions of Apparel Quality.” The purpose of this research was to investigate demographics and psychographics of high and low fashion oriented consumers. Differences between the two groups as they relate to brand name and store type were also investigated. The independent variables include high and low fashion orientation, four store types, and two brand names, the dependent variable was consumers' perception of apparel quality.

Easterling, Cynthia R., Henthorne, Tony L., Loyd, Dolly D., “Targeting the Older Consumer: Retail Marketing Strategies (a survey of the nation’s top retailers),”  ACRA/ICSC May 1995. This study examines programs and activities utilized by some of the nation’s largest retailers in an effort to reach this important and growing segment of our population.

Eastlick, Mary Ann, Patti Warrington, Sherry Lotz and Soyeon Shim, “Exploring Consumer Motives for Pursuing Retail-tainment Offerings in Shopping Malls,” ACRA Spring Conference, 1998 (Washington, DC).  This exploratory study reports the results of two surveys on intrinsic and extrinsic motives for pursuing entertainment, service, and/or merchandise offerings in regional shopping malls.

Eastlick, Mary Ann, “Hispanic-American and Mexican-National Consumers, Ethnic Identity and Retailer Attribute Preferences,”  ACRA April, 1996. The purpose of this study was to compare retailer attribute preferences of Hispanic-American and Mexican-national shoppers in a southwestern city located in close proximity to the Mexico border and to examine the influence of their cultural identities on these preferences to help retailers develop effective marketing strategies for Mexican markets as well as target diverse ethnic groups of many U.S. retail markets.

Eastlick, Mary Ann, “The Effects of Ethnicity and Product on Informational Influence,”
Increases in minority population lead to increased purchasing power for that population. Companies need to focus sales and advertising on these markets, and this article reviews several steps to focus on these markets.

Evans, Ashleigh, Robyn Sammons, Jeanne Heitmeyer, and Kennita Kind, “Generation Y Purchase Motivations”, ACRA, Spring 2004, Orlando. This paper is to identify Generation Y’s utilitarian and hedonic values and shopping involvement when purchasing apparel products. The objectives of this exploratory study were (1) to measure utilitarian values, (2) to measure hedonic values, (3) to compare gender differences regarding the importance of utilitarian and hedonic values, and (4) to identify shopping involvement levels for apparel and how they relate preferences for utilitarian and hedonic values. Findings indicate Generation Y respondents are relatively neutral about the importance of utilitarian value when shopping for apparel. Price, however, is slightly more important to them. Examining hedonic variables, Generation Y places a high value on product display, aesthetics, and the appearance of the store. Overall, generation Y has a high level of shopping involvement for apparel.

Flores, Lorena, Lotz, Sherry and Eastlick, Mary Ann, “The Impact of Bi-Acculturation and Situational Influence on Shopping Orientations among Mexican-American Consumers,”  ACRA, Spring 1999. The study of Hispanic-Americans’ socialization processes and situational influences helps examine their shopping patterns. Using an adaptation of the Immigrant Consumer Acculturation and Consumer Socialization Retail Patronage models, this study examines the relationship among bi-acculturation, shopping orientations, and situational influences of Mexican Americans within an apparel context.

Forsythe, Sandra, “Profiling Consumer Complaint Behavior,”  ACRA, Winter 1986. A study of complaint behavior of women's and children's apparel consumers to assess the public and private behavior in response to unsatisfactory purchases.

Forsythe, Sandra M., “Working Women: Some Implications for Retailing Strategies,” ACRA, Winter 1984. An abstract and analysis of a wide range of published items on the changing characteristics of the American Woman, particularly as the changes impact her behavior as a retail consumer.

Forsythe, Sandra M. “Women Apparel Customers: A New Look at a Changing Market,”  ACRA, Winter 1985. The results of a survey of 794 female apparel customers across the state of Georgia. Findings support the notion of changing lifestyles, concern for quality, and identify bases for dissatisfaction in apparel purchases.

Forsythe, Sandra, “Surrogate Usage in Apparel Purchasing,”  ACRA, Spring 1991. This article discusses the use of surrogate shoppers--agents employed to assist consumers with the decision making process--to facilitate apparel purchase decisions is becoming increasingly popular as evidenced by the growing number of personal shopping services offered by retail companies.

Fuller, Barbara Kay and Suzanna C. Blackwell,  “Wardrobe Consultant Clientele: An Identification of Customer Profiles,”  The objective of this study was to determine if shopping attitudes could be used to group consumers in a manner that is meaningful for retail strategy. Once consumers were grouped by shopping attitudes, then the group could be compared to determine if differences exist in personal characteristics or expenditure patterns.

Gable, Myron, Lynn Harris and Susan Stone, “Purchasing Roles of Husbands and Wives in a Rural Area,”  ACRA, Spring 1984. An attempt to replicate a study of the relative importance in a number of retail purchase decisions of husbands and wives. No specific comparisons were made with the earlier study due to the different sample populations and time lag.

Greenberg, C. Jerome, Martin Topol, Elaine Sherman and Leon Schiffman, “An Examination of Store Type Preferences of Suburban Shoppers,” Spring 1982. An analysis of 283 consumers for "Perceived Fashion Content" as related to the types of stores shopped and preferred. This was contrasted to traditional demographic variables as a discriminating function.

Greenberg, Jerome C, Elaine Sherman and Leon Schiffman, “Store Choice as a Function of Fashion Content,” The study examines the questions of how consumers' store choices are affected by their perceptions of the fashion content of diverse products. A variable called Perceived Fashion Content (PFC) is developed to provide a measure of these perceptions and then the individual PFC ratings are aggregated by store to yield a method of measuring the store's fashion image.

Harmon, Susan K. and Robert A. Robicheaux, “The Changing Face of Readers in the United States: How the Demographics of Spending for Reading materials have Changed From 1973 to 1994,” ACRA Spring Conference, 1998 (Washington, DC). The research investigates the changing demographics and purchasing habits of readers of books and magazines over a ten year period using published government documents.

Hillery, Julie L Johnson, “Elderly Consumers an detail Sales Personnel: Attitudes and Retail Service Satisfaction,” ACRA Spring,1996. The objective of this research was to test assumptions of the elderly consumers' attitudes toward older and younger retail sales personnel as well as the elderly consumers' level of service satisfaction compared to the retail sales personnel's perceptions of elderly consumers' service satisfaction. The intention is to give retailers more knowledge of how best to serve the growing market of persons over age 65.

Huddleston, Patricia, Imogene Ford, and Marianne Mahoney, “Do Lifestyle Characteristics of Mature Female Consumers Predict the Importance of their Retail Store Attributes?”  ACRA/NRMA, Winter 1989.  The paper discusses the development of merchandising strategies to reach the affluent mature female consumer.

Huddleston, Patricia, “The Mature Female Department and Specialty Store Customer: Segmentation by Retail Attributes,”  ACRA, Spring 1990. A study that develops a profile of retail characteristics desired by mature female consumers for each type of shopper. It also determines whether differences exist between department store and specialty store customers regarding the importance of selected retail store services and characteristics.

Joung, Hyun-Mee and Nancy J. Miller, “Effects of older (55+) female consumers' participation in social activities on apparel shopping behavior,” ICSC / ACRA Las Vegas Conference  May, 2002. The purpose of this study was to explore relationships among older female consumers; participation in social activities, apparel shopping orientations, and apparel shopping activities.

Kang, Keang-young and Doris H. Kincade, “Comparison of Information Search Formats for Apparel Decision Making,” ACRA Spring Conference,1998, Washington, DC. The purpose of this study is to identify a useful information search format for apparel retailers. It includes a literature review and apparel specific suggestions for information decision models.

Kang-Park, Jikyeong, “Comparison of Pre-Purchase Satisfaction: Misses Sized Women vs. Petite Sized Women.” ACRA, April 1992, Dallas. The purpose of the current study was to investigate consumers' pre-purchase satisfaction with the women's clothing market segmented by size category, utilizing and adapted model of the consumer decision process. In the adapted model, satisfaction is presented as a construct which can be measured at other stages of the consumer decision process, i.e., search, alternative evaluation, and purchase, as well as at the more traditional stage, i.e., outcome.

Kaufman, Carol Felker, and Lane, Paul M., “It’s Time for One-Stop Shopping,”  ACRA, Winter 1995. The present paper extends the notion of one-stop shopping to include time congruity, which involves the matching of shoppers’ preferred hours with those actually scheduled by stores. The results of a study of store hours is presented, and recommendations are given for fine-tuning store schedules when target consumers seek one-stop shopping opportunities.

Kim, Hye-Shin, “Hedonic and Utilitarian Shopping Motivations of Market Mavens”, ACRA, Spring 2005, Philadelphia. This study seeks to provide a deeper and broader understanding of market mavenism by examining both utilitarian and hedonic motivations for shopping. Results show that the hedonic motivation constructs of stimulation (a combined construct from adventure, gratification, and idea) and value, together with the utilitarian construct achievement, best explained market mavenism. To summarize, it appears that a young market maven has the tendency to enjoy a shopping excursion that provides stimulation and excitement where finding value or bargain is a motivator.

Kinnaird, Jerry V, Mary Cotton and Mary Warnock, “Behavioral Semblance Among Teenage Fashion Adopters,” ACRA/NRMA, Winter 1989. The purpose of this study was to identify specific fashion consumer segment behavioral descriptors that proved to be significantly important between two contrasting age populations with the same general demographical characteristics.

Kothari, Vinay and Robert H. Solomon, “The Effect of Store Image on Customer Deviant Behavior: An Exploratory Study.”  An exploratory report of an experiment conducted to establish the relationship between store image and the reaction to shoplifting and other forms of customer theft. 807 university students were surveyed and the findings indicate a relationship between store image and the response to theft by students.

Kothari, Vinay and  Solomon, Robert, “A Study of the Impact of Store Image on Customer Deviant Behavior,” ACRA, 1992 Dallas. This research study investigates the nature of relationships between store image and customer deviant behavior. Attitudes concerning such deviant behavior as shoplifting are examined in terms of store policies and practices which could be classified as "good" or "bad." The study, which is a replication of a 1980 study, also compares data and highlights some changes in the relationships over a ten-year period.

Kothari, Vinay and Solomon, Robert H. , “The Relationship Between Store Image and Customer Deviant Behavior,” ACRA, April 1992 Dallas. This research study investigates the nature of relationships between store image and customer deviant behavior. Attitudes concerning such deviant behavior as shoplifting are examined in terms of store policies and practices which could be classified as "good" or "bad." The study which is a replication of a 1980 study, also compares data and highlights some changes in the relationships over a ten-year period.

Kotsiopulos, Antigone and Soyeon Shim, “An In-depth Profile of the Mall Shopper: Frequent Patrons vs. Nonpatrons,”  ACRA, Spring 1988. The study explored the feasibility of developing profiles for patrons and nonpatrons of shopping centers in a manner similar to the profiling of consumers for individual retail operations.

Kridler, Jamie Branam, Mary Frances Drake and Larry C. Wadsworth, “Retail Consumer Profiles Developed from Real-Buy Situation,” ACRA, Spring 1989. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether or not profiles can be drawn for retail consumers of insulated apparel. Lifestyles was the independent variable and demographics, price of the garment, and sources of information on the insulated material were the dependent variables.

Lamb, Tammy R.  and Jinger Eberspacher, “References Used by Male Consumers for the Selection of Apparel Items for Themselves,”  ACRA, April 1994. The purpose of this study is to identify reference groups and/or significant others used by male consumers in the purchase decisions of apparel and their perceived extent of influence. The paper also discusses how these influences can be incorporated into marketing and sales strategies.

Lavin, Marilyn, “Who Likes to Shop: An Extension of Earlier Findings,” ACRA, Spring 1990.  A paper reviewing the studies that have given primary consideration to shopping attitudes and behaviors. It also presents some unpublished results that may be useful in understanding "liking of shopping" in contemporary society.

Lavin, Marilyn, “Wives' Employment, Time Pressure, and Mail/Phone Shopping: An Exploratory Study,” ACRA, April 1992 Dallas. This paper considers whether employment outside the home contributes to the feelings of time pressure experienced by working wives and their husbands. It then examines, for both spouses, whether or not feelings of greater time pressure are associated with mail/phone order preferences. Data gathered from 197 married persons residing in 34 states and the District of Columbia suggest that wives' employment outside the home is related to husbands' feelings of time pressure, but not to wives' experience of temporal constraints. For neither spouse are feelings of greater time pressure linked with preference for non-store shopping alternatives.

Lester, Deborah H. , Andrew M. Forman, and Dolly D. Loyd, “Longitudinal Study of Generation Y: Internet Shopping Behavior”, ACRA, Spring 2004, Orlando. This longitudinal study evaluates Generation Y’s online shopping behavior and how it has evolved in a two-year time span. With a buying power that rivals the baby boomers, marketers are scrambling to discover strategies to entice this generation of Net Kids.  This study identifies general directions as well as specific areas that marketers need to consider. Results of this study indicate that Generation Y is eagerly embracing the World Wide Web and has no qualms about making purchases through the Internet.  Young adults have access to computers and the Internet and greater numbers of them are completing purchases on the Web.  Generation Y is making purchases more often and spending greater amounts of money than ever before.

Mascarenhas, Oswald A.J and Mary A. Higby, “Interpersonal Influence Patterns in Teen Leisure Shopping,” ACRA, Spring 1991. This paper explores interpersonal influence patterns affecting teen leisure shopping in relation to low-involvement (causal) and high-involvement (formal) shopping items. Data from 234 high school teens indicate four types of significant influences: those passively sought by teens, those actively sought, normative influences from peers, and informative - normative influences from parents. All four influence patterns are almost identical across causal and formal leisure shopping. Passively sought teen influences are predominantly normative, while actively sought are informative and dominate all other influences. Major sociodemographic determinants of leisure shopping influence patterns include gift money, teen earned income, gender, and mother's working status.

McGurr, Paul, “Gender Differences in Shopping Enjoyment,” ACRA Spring Conference, Montreal, 2003. This paper challenges the declaration that men do not enjoy shopping.  Over 700 college-age participants are asked to visit various stores and complete a questionnaire summarizing their shopping experience.  It is found that there is no significant difference between the measurement of shopping enjoyment between male and female participants.

Meoli, Jennifer, Richard Feinberg, and Amy Rummel, “There's Something Social Happening at the Mall,”  ACRA, Spring 1988. The purpose of this paper was to outline the results of two studies designed to investigate the social nature of the retail mall.

Minger, Diane M. and Marian H. Jernigan, “Apparel Shopping Orientations of Hispanic College Students: An Analysis Based on Strength of Ethnic Identification,”
ACRA, April 1994. The purpose of this study was to determine if differences in apparel shopping orientations exist between Hispanics who are strong ethnic identifiers and Hispanics who are weak ethnic identifiers.

Monger, Jodie E and Holly L Schrank, “Consumer Perception of Retail Service as Related to Locus of Control and Locus of Causality,”  ACRA, Spring 1990. A study that looks at the relationship between a customer's interpretation of service, which varies with the individual, and the perceived level of satisfaction. If elements of consumer personality are responsible for assessments of the sales situation, an awareness of such factors might well be used to increase levels of satisfaction and to reduce customer turnover.

Moore, Marguerite, Jason M. Carpenter, Mika Turner, and Preeti Joshi, “Generation X Versus Generation Y Consumers: An Evaluation of Retail Format Preferences and Patronage Motives”, ACRA, Spring 2005, Philadelphia. The current research uses generational cohort theory as a framework to examine patronage behavior among a random sample of U.S. consumers in the Generation X and Generation Y cohort groups. The study identifies important patronage motives and format preferences for each cohort group. The results suggest strategic implications for retailers that target these consumer segments.

Paek, Soae, “Apparel Cross-Shopping of Rural Consumers: A Comparative Analysis,”
ACRA, April 1994.  This study examines apparel store patronage of consumers, the clothing types purchased and the perceived store characteristics. The study focuses on consumers residing in midwestern rural towns in relation to seven different store types.

Paek, Soae L., “A Comparative Analysis of Determinant Attributes in Retail Store Patronage,” ACRA, April 1992 Dallas.   The purpose of this study was to investigate the apparel store patronage of career women in a non-urban academic community. The specific objectives were (1) to investigate apparel purchase decision making factors and store patronage of four (4) types of retail stores, i.e., department stores, specialty stores, national chain stores, and discount stores and (2) to determine the relative importance of purchasing decision making factors which discriminate patrons from non-patrons of those store types.

Park, Kyungae and Carl Dyer, “The Effects of Product Attributes on Consumer Symbolic Innovative Behavior,”  ACRA, April 1994. The purposes of this study were to identify important product attributes for symbolic innovations and to examine the effects of the attributes on the two types of innovatives: purchase and use. The results indicated that use innovative consumers were more involved in the evaluation of attributes for symbolic innovations.

Priluck, Randi, “The Benefits of Relationship Marketing: Mitigation in Spite of Attribution,” ICSC / ACRA Las Vegas Conference May 2002. This study examines a situation in which consumers are exposed to an instance of poor product performance for which blame is attributable to the marketers; difference of response depending upon "loyalty or existing relationship with the retailer prior to the negative experience.

Rinne, Heikki and William Swinyard, “A Profile of the Wholesale Club Shopper,”
ACRA, Winter 1993.Due to rapid growth in warehouse clubs in the early 1990's, this analysis was performed to describe the warehouse club shopper. The spectrum was segmented into non-shoppers, light and heavy shoppers. An examination of the factors used to evaluate these stores by the customers is also discussed.

Shim, Soyeon, “The Sleeping Giants: An Untapped Market,” ACRA, Spring 1989.
This study explores big and tall men as an untapped market. The big and tall men reflected a wide range of clothing involvement, and were classified into three groups: "low," "medium," and "high" involved consumers. These three groups were compared on consumer characteristics such as clothing orientations, lifestyle activities, and demographic characteristics and clothing shopping behaviors such as satisfaction with clothing shopping experiences and clothing buying practices.

Stoel, Leslie, Linda K. Good, and Patricia Huddleson, “Product Perceptions and Store Choice of Ethnocentric Consumers,”  ACRA, April 1994.  This study looks at the level of ethnocentrism among consumers. The research showed that ethnocentrism alone does not significantly indicate the consumer’s product perception or store choice.

Stoops, Glenn T. and Michael Pearson, “Profiling the Heavy Purchasing Credit Card User,” ACRA, January 1992, NYC Winter Meetings. This article discusses how retailers get information about their clients from credit card purchases. This enables the retailer to profile their customers in order to see who are their most significant customers. Categories analyzed included occupations, working women, age levels, number of children, mail order buyers and lifestyles.

Williams, Theresa D and Mary Frances Drake, “Complaint Behavior Relative to the Price Paid and the Store Patronized,”  ACRA, April 1992 Dallas. The purpose of this study was to examine complaint alternatives, identify the relationship between consumer complaint behavior (CCB), the store patronized and CCB relative to the price of the garment purchased. Questionnaires from 479 respondents who purchased garments from either mass merchant, a department store, a local discounter, or a national discounter were analyzed based on their response to a nine-item complaint activity measure. Results indicated that these respondents engaged in various complaint behaviors. It is on those behaviors to which this study is focused. It was found that these respondents engaged in both "public" and "private" complaint behavior; and a correlation was indicated between store, price and the type of complaint behavior.

Yurchisin, Jennifer, “Compulsive Buying Behavior and its Relationships,” ACRA Spring Conference, Montreal 2003.  The study involved investigating socio-psychological factors that were related to compulsive buying behavior in adults who were between the ages of 18 and 24.  There is an attempt to confirm the existence of relationships between compulsive buying behavior and perceived social status associated with buying, materialism, and self-esteem.  In addition, they explore whether a relationship exists between compulsive buying and apparel-product involvement to see if the variable of apparel-product involvement might also be useful in predicting compulsive buying behavior.