Retailing by Product Category

Overview:  This section contains manuscripts examining topics related to retailing by product category.

Adams, Kendall, “Food Retailing as a Tool of Economic Development” ,ACRA, Spring 1982.A consideration of the role of improved food retailing as a vehicle for improving the general economic situation in under developed countries with particular reference to the situation in Cochabamba, Bolivia. The research indicates that the application of market analysis could do much to increase the economic level of the community.

Ashinger, Phyllis, “Consumer Perceptions of Private Fashion Labels”,ACRA, Spring 1985.A longitudinal study of women shoppers' attitudes toward private label apparel in 1984 and 1985. General recognition of brand and store declined. The number of new labels introduced appears to have contributed to the confusion.

Barry, Mary E., “Apparel Sourcing Fair: The Auburn Model”,ACRA, Winter 1988.
The working paper describes the Auburn University Apparel Sourcing Fair, held in February, 1986.

Barry, Mary E. and Carol L. Warfield, “Apparel Sourcing Fair”,ACRA, Spring 1986.A description of the planning and implementation of the apparel sourcing fair held at Auburn University designed to enhance contact between apparel retailers and Alabama apparel producers. The fair was attended by nine retailers with combined sales of $100 billion and 75 manufacturers.

Burdalski, Doreen and Jeremy Rosenau, “Comparison of the Responsibilities of the Merchandiser in Apparel Manufacturing and the Product Manager in Retailing”, ACRA, Spring 2004, Orlando. Through surveys conducted of retailing and apparel manufacturing firms in the United States, this research compares the responsibilities of the merchandiser in an apparel company with the responsibilities of the product manager in a retail firm. Evidence suggests that large retailers are devoting resources to establishing separate divisions for managing the private label portion of their business. Overall findings suggest that the responsibilities of the merchandiser and product manager are similar.  Significant differences are found however, in the areas of inventory planning, final costing of styles and maintaining profitability.

Caldwell, Lark F and Marian H. Jernigan, “A Comparison of Retail Fabric Customers of Fabric Chain Stores, Independent Fabric Stores and Home Sales Representatives”,ACRA, Winter 1988.A survey of 220 customers shopping for retail fabrics. The study shows an increase in sales of sewing machines, fabrics, patterns, and notions in the '80s. The need to respond to changing life-styles as pertains to the future of fabric retailing is examined.

Center for Apparel Marketing and Merchandising, Oklahoma State University, ACRA, Spring 1984.Copies of the newsletter and research report produced by the Center for Applied Marketing and Merchandising at Oklahoma State University.

Forney, Judith C. , Eun Joo Park, and Lynn Brandon, “The Effects of Evaluative Criteria on Brand Extensions in Fashion Products: Implications for Retailers”, ACRA, Winter 2004, New York. The purposes of this study were to identify the dimensions of evaluative criteria used when purchasing casual apparel and home furnishings, and to examine the effects of evaluative criteria on brand extension across casual apparel and home furnishings products. We identified four dimensions of evaluative criteria for casual apparel and home furnishings: Image, Quality, Design/beauty and Color/style. This exploratory study provides some initial evidence that consumers’ reactions to brand extensions of fashion products exist and it is especially evident for brands that extend across casual apparel and home furnishings products. Also, it suggests that consumers with a brand loyalty might buy that brand in another fashion product category.

Forsythe, Sandra M.and Jane Boyd Thomas,ACRA.A survey of 177 women mall shoppers revealing their thoughts on clothing involvement and fiber preferences. The study identifies women consumers' preferences and perceptions of natural and synthetic fibers and their relationship to demographics.

Forsythe, Sandra M“Apparel Purchase Decisions: When is Fiber Information Important?”,ACRA, Spring 1987.A survey of 270 women about their knowledge of fiber and their desire for more information. The objective to study the relationship between certain independent variables, such as occupation and education, and the dependent variables of fiber information.

Gutman, Jonathan and Michael K. Mills, “Fashion Lifestyle and Store Patronage: A Different Approach” ,May 1981.A major study based on mail response of over 235 mail responses to a 36 page questionnaire for the greater Los Angeles region. It attempts to link lifestyle characteristics to store patronage and retail fashion purchase behavior. Substantial differences were found in shopping behavior related to the lifestyles defined by the study. Bibliography.

Kim, Hye-Shin, “Examination of Brand Personality and Brand Attitude within the Apparel Product Category”,ACRA, Spring 1999.This study examines the relationship between perceptions of five brand personality traits for various apparel brands and the contribution of these brand personality traits in forming positive or negative brand attitude. Also explored was whether brands within a product category could be grouped based on similarity of brand personality traits.

Kim, Eun Young and Pauline Sullivan, “A Cross-Border Shopping Model: Implication for Fashion Retailers”, ACRA, Winter 2004, New York. This study is to review previous research on cross-border shopping through examination of secondary data and consumer interviews and survey and to examine the use of a decision-making perspective to increase understanding of this phenomenon. A framework for the decision-making process in the context of cross-border shopping is proposed. The findings suggest that as border constrains decrease, it is important for researchers and retail practitioners to understand the determinants that affect consumer decision-making processes in cross-border marketplaces. Often a cross-border shopping trip is strongly motivated by qualitative characteristics pertaining to the joy and fun of the shopping experience.

Li, Xue  and Sandra Forsythe, “How Brand Knowledge Influences Consumers’ Purchase Intentions”, ACRA, Spring 2004, Orlando. The purpose of this research was to test the fit of Keller’s model (dimensions of brand knowledge) and propose an alternative model if Keller’s model failed to achieve a good fit. The relationships between dimensions of brand knowledge and consumers’ intention to buy selected branded apparel products were investigated. A survey was used to examine how each component contributes to brand knowledge and consumers’ purchase intentions for two apparel product categories: jeans and athletic shoes. The results of this study showed extrinsic brand attributes had a greater impact on perceived benefits than did brand awareness or intrinsic brand attributes. Consumers’ brand attitudes toward jeans and athletic shoes are more influenced by their perceptions of benefits than by brand awareness or intrinsic brand attributes.

Lyle, William F, “Some Strategic Implications of Generic Products in Atlanta, GA 1978-1982”,ACRA, Spring 1982.An analysis of the pricing behavior and management implications of the introduction of generic products into a specific retail market area. It examines the establishment and extension of generics on a chain basis. Bibliography.

Paek, Soae, “Apparel Cross-Shopping of Rural Consumers: A Comparative Analysis”,
ACRA, April 1994.This study examines apparel store patronage of consumers, the clothing types purchased and the perceived store characteristics. The study focuses on consumers residing in midwestern rural towns in relation to seven different store types.

“Consumer Characteristics Affecting Store-Type Patronage Behavior for Women's Apparel: A Literature Review” ,ACRA, Spring 1989.This paper reports the findings of previous research efforts that addressed the effect of selected consumer characteristics on consumers' generic store-type patronage behavior for apparel products.

Seo, Jung-Im, “Male and Female Students’ Shopping Behaviors Based on Product Involvement And Brand Commitment”, ACRA, Winter 2004, New York. This study provides a more comprehensive understanding of young male and female consumers’ shopping behaviors. This research highlights the need to better understand the complex inter-relationship between Product Involvement and Brand Commitment in both male and female consumers’ shopping behaviors. This study indicates that male consumers were statistically different from female consumers. The findings of this study indicate that college students who have high product involvement are likely to buy their clothing at the department stores and specialty stores to express their own individuality. One interesting result of this study is that the Internet is another shopping choice for clothing in current consumers, but it is not an attractive shopping choice for college students.

Stretch, Shirley, “Customer Service in the Women's Apparel Industry”.This is an abstract of the study of comparison of apparel retailers and manufacturers' view of customer service importance and satisfaction and the possibility of using customer service as a market segmentation tool. The study is based on almost 900 responses from manufacturers and retailers.

Summers, Teresa A., Bonnie D. Belleau and  Patricia Woznia , “Fashion and Shopping Perceptions, Demographics, and Patronage Preferences of Rural and Urban Women”,ACRA, Spring 1989.Factor analysis was used to generate five factors to describe fashion and shopping perceptions of rural and urban women. Analysis of variance examined relationships between the five factors and respondents' demographic characteristics and store patronage preferences.

Thomas, Jane Boyd and Sandra M Forsythe, , “Marketing Natural and Synthetic Fibers to Women Apparel Consumers”,ACRA, 1987.This paper presents the relationship between women's perceptions of apparel materials and selected demographic characteristics.

Thomas, Jane Boyd, Nancy L. Cassill and Sandra M. Forsythe , “Apparel Involvement: The Influence of Fiber Information Sources”,ACRA, Spring 1989.The primary purpose of this study was to determine if apparel involvement is composed of more than one dimension. If apparel involvement consists of more than one dimension, then further refinement of each dimension would be accomplished by examining 1) the fiber information sources use, and 2) consumer demographics.

Tims, Mary K. and Mary Francis Drake, “Shopping Behavior Characteristics of Elderly Women Shoppers of Apparel”,ACRA, Spring 1985.A survey of 204 women shoppers was taken to determine what differences, if any, were found in the over 65 year old customers. Most of the elderly spent under $500 on personal clothing per year. Most shopped with a companion and shopped several times a year.

Yang, Kiseol, and Allison Young, “Perspectives of Consumer Attitudes Regarding Customized”, ACRA, Winter 2004, New York. This study explored consumers’ attitudes toward the emerging customized apparel marketing. Based on two theoretical models, Purchasing Decision model and  Technology Acceptance Model, this study proposed a model, which shows consumers’ attitudes affected by the functions of customized apparel marketing on the website. The proposed model provides an initial approach to conceptualizing consumers’ attitudes toward customized apparel marketing. Moreover, this study provides problems that customized apparel marketing cannot minimize consumers’ risk perceptions in purchasing apparel from the Internet. However, customized apparel marketing can effectively give alternative information to suit a consumer’s preference in a time-efficient manner.