Models and Methodologies for Retail Analysis

Overview:  This section contains manuscripts examining topics related to models and methodologies for retail analysis.

Brannon, Evelyn L and Anderson, Lenda Jo, “Product Talk: Focus Groups in Product Development”,ACRA, Spring 1990 .A paper that identifies specific issues in the interpretation of focus group interviews and suggests refinements in the reporting of focus group interviews. Factors that influence the flow of talk include the emergence of a dominant member, evidence of group solidarity, impression management strategies, psychographic characteristics, and consumers' experience level. Suggested techniques for exploring affective responses include projectiles, thought listings, and creative writing. The paper concludes with a discussion of the role of the academic researchers reporting on focus groups in the product development process.

Dickinson, Roger, Fred Harris, and Sumit Sircar , “The Compatibility Index: An Illustrative Case”,NRMA, January 1987.An example of the compatibility index, which compares observed market share to the expected one, measures the ability to induce crossover purchases and determines the degree of multi-product market power. Data provided by Marvin Rothenberg in "The Merchandise Information Report developed by the Customer Intensification System for Management Planning Report."

Endo, Seiji and Doris Kincade , “Exploring ther Relationships Between Consumers and Apparel manufacturers Through Profit Communication”,ACRA Spring 2000 , Toronto.The purpose of this study was to investigate how to reduce the communications distance between consumers and manufacturers by identifying consumer preferences for and barriers to participation in the apparel manufacturing process." Using a random sample of graduate students, this study was able to analyze responses and provide suggestions for improvement. Included is an extensive background of current market conditions, description of research methods used and the results of the research.

Forsythe, Sandra, Samah Ahmed and Xue Li , “Building a model for predicting consumers' value perception and intention-to-buy branded apparel”,ICSC / ACRA Las Vegas  May 2002.The purpose of this research was to provide a conceptual framework to assess the contribution of branded product attributes to consumer's value perceptions and intention-to-buy apparel products.

Fuller, Barbara, and Darrell Parker , “Retail Indices and Orderings for MSA's”,ACRA, Spring 1991.This article links the BPI (Buying Power Index) with the economic literature on indexing and clarify adjustments important for the retailer as an indexing agent. As an illustration the article includes a numerical example including differential cost of living measures for MSA's. The article concludes with a discussion of the orderings generated by customizing the BPI and the robustness of such measures.

Gaskill, LuAnn Ricketts, Howard E. VanAuken and Ronald A. Manning, “A Factor Analytic Study of the Perceived Causes of Small Business Failure”,ACRA, Winter 1993.
An analysis of causes contributing to failures of small businesses. Using examples from the apparel and accessory retailing industry, this work brings together findings from previous studies in order to provide a more comprehensive outlook of small business failure.

Gentry, James W., Thomas L. Brown, Stephen J. Grove, Gary McLain and Clifford E. Young , “A Causal Investigation of a Retail Patronage Model”, January 1983.The study builds on the retail gravitational models of Huff and Reilly and more recent work which incorporates retail image into the model. A general model of retail patronage is hypothesized and tested with data from four grocery stores using the LISREL II program. The results cast some doubt as to the validity of a single general patronage model. The research does provide an excellent basis for similar studies to refine or validate the model. Bibliography.

Good, Linda K, “Retail Turnover: Does Hierarchical Level Yield Different Relationships?” ,ACRA, April 1992 Dallas.This paper first presents reasons why examining the antecedents of turnover based on hierarchical level within the organization is preferable to other indicators of career stage. Next, the model of turnover is presented along with the rationale of the expected relationships. Subsequently, the method, including sampling and instrumentation is articulated. The results of structural equations analysis of the model are then presented and discussed. Finally, the theoretical and managerial implications of the study are discussed.

Hauck, Bill, “B2B: Forecasting for Fashion Apparel”,ACRA Spring  Montreal 2003 .This paper addresses the B2B use of the Internet to facilitate fashion forecasting by consultants to entrepreneurial apparel retailers using Web-based resources to learn about products and consumer trends.

“Application of a Choice Sets Model of Retail Selection to Assess Store Patronage of High Involvement Consumers”,ACRA, Spring 1989.This study examined the patronage behavior of maternity apparel consumers through application of a choice sets models of retail selection. This is part of an ongoing study designed to assess the application of this type of modeling and incorporate findings into retailing practices.

Lester, Deborah H.  and Dolly D. Loyd, “Research Methods:  Online Vs Oldline”, ACRA, Spring 2005, Philadelphia, PA. The purpose of this study was to conduct a basic research survey utilizing an online method and a traditional paper/pencil survey method and to compare the results. A convenience sample was used for both studies. The online survey had 504 respondents and the paper/pencil survey had 531 for a total of 1035 participants. When the responses to the online questionnaire were compared to the traditional paper/pencil answers no significant differences occurred in the responses except with regards to answers selected when respondents were queried about where they get most of their information from. This difference was anticipated due to the online contact method.

Pearce, Michael R., Carman Cullen, Donna Green and  Chow-Hou Wee, “On Conducting a Shopping Area Patronage Study”,ACRA, Winter 1984.This paper reports in detail the design and execution of a city-wide major shopping area patronage study. The study involved 482 households, a lengthy questionnaire, and two week shopping diaries.

Poindexter, Martha L and Thomas, Jane Boyd, “Meeting Consumer Demand To Improve Retail Performance: A Quick Response Simulation”,ACRA, Spring 1990.The purpose of this paper was to (1) provide some background information about Quick Response, (2) provide an introduction to a retail simulation (The Apparel Retail Model, ARM) designed to demonstrate the impact of QR on retail performance, and to (3) discuss the implications of QR for the retailer.

Reardon, James and Ronald Hasty, “A Game Theoretic Approach to International Retailer-Vendor Relations”,ACRA Spring  1998 (Washington, DC) .This paper uses game theory to examine the conflict issues that can arise in international sourcing agreements. Problems of achieving cooperation are discussed. Three strategies for cooperation and vendor relations are presented and tested.

Risch, Ernest, “Operating Profit in the Conventional Department Store: A Statistical Prognosis”,ACRA/NRMA, 1986.A documentation and statistical projection of the decline in the traditional department store as a retail institution. The question is, will the institution be able to evolve before it expires, or take some other action to reverse the persistent decline in market share and operating profits.

Rumme, Amy and  Richard Feinberg, “Assessing Effective and Ineffective Leadership in Retailing Using a Critical Incident Technique”,ACRA, Winter 1986.Critical incidents of effective/good and ineffective/bad leadership were obtained from 26 retail department managers and buyers in a large retail department store. The results show that effective and ineffective managers and buyers differ in salient leadership characteristics. In addition, leadership characteristics of effective managers may differ in significant ways from effective buyers and ineffective managers from ineffective buyers. Since retailers report leadership training to be important, this study suggests that training should be focused on those leadership characteristics empirically determined to lead to effective leadership in a given position.

Topol, Martin T., “Applications of the Growth/Share Matrix in Retailing”
ACRA, Spring 1984.An analysis of the problems inherent in applying the Growth/Share matrix approach (Boston Consulting Group Model) to retail strategic business units. It points out some aspects of retailing which make it inappropriate to use the BCG model in a simplistic fashion. The concept is linked to the idea of positioning the firm and may be applied within rather than between stores.

Watchravesringkan, Kittichai , “Modeling Consumers' Online Purchase Behaviors”  ACRA Spring  Montreal 2003.This study examines how consumers' perceived risks toward etail store versus retail sore and how the risks related to their previous shopping experience with a store can be employed in predicting shopping intentions.

Yudelson and  Julian, “The Failure of the Sales Management Buying Power Index and Income as Qualitative Predictors of Retail Market Potential”,ACRA, Spring 1985.Discusses the correlation between household retail sales and various measures of income and buying power, namely the Sales Management Index of Buying Power.

Zordan, Anthony and McGurr, Paul T.,ACRA, Spring 1999.This study provides an accurate financial ratio failure prediction model focused on the retail industry, using the McGurr and Devaney study, which develops a retail failure prediction model using accrual based accounting financial ratios. This paper determines if accounting information in the form of cash flow ratios derived from the statement of cash flows could be used to predict failure or non-failure.